Hydroxyapatite (HA), has been used commonly as a bone substitute and as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering. However it has certain drawbacks such as limited biodegradability and osteointegration properties. Other forms of HA, for example, carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) could prove to have enhanced bioactivity as they more closely mimic the chemical composition of the apatite found in human bone. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of CHA in comparison to HA used as a control. The CHA (4.9 wt %) and the HA discs were seeded with MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Results revealed a trend of increased cell attachment on the HA discs at day 0, however, the cell proliferation on the CHA discs at 7 and 28 days showed no significant difference in comparison to the HA control. SEM of the CHA discs showed surface irregularities at 7 days indicating dissolution. Also at 7 days, SEM demonstrated cell attachment and extracellular matrix production on both the CHA and HA samples. There was no significant difference in the total amount of collagen produced in the CHA samples relative to the HA control samples at 28 days as evaluated by the hydroxyproline assay. Real time PCR revealed mRNA increase by 2.08, 7.62, and 9.86 fold for collagen I a1, collagen III a1, and osteocalcin respectively on the CHA as compared to the HA discs. This study demonstrates the use of CHA as a biocompatible material that has potentially increased biodegradation properties and osteogenic capability in comparison to HA.
"Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a calcium phosphate (CaP) which is the main inorganic component of bone . It possesses high compressive strength  and is osteoconductive (allows for bone cell attachment, migration, and growth)  making it an ideal inorganic material for bone tissue engineering. Through the combination of PLGA and HA, we believe that a composite scaffold can be created that capitalizes on the benefits of both materials. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With greater than 500,000 orthopaedic procedures performed in the United States each year requiring a bone graft, the development of novel graft materials is necessary. We report that some porous polymer/ceramic composite scaffolds possess intrinsic osteoinductivity as shown through their capacity to induce in vivo host osteoid mineralization and in vitro stem cell osteogenesis making them attractive synthetic bone graft substitutes. It was discovered that certain low crystallinity ceramics partially dissociate into simple signaling molecules (i.e., calcium and phosphate ions) that induce stem cells to endogenously produce their own osteoinductive proteins. Review of the literature has uncovered a variety of simple signaling molecules (i.e., gases, ions, and redox reagents) capable of inducing other desirable stem cell differentiation through endogenous growth factor production. Inductive simple signaling molecules, which we have termed inducerons, represent a paradigm shift in the field of regenerative engineering where they can be utilized in place of recombinant protein growth factors.
PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e101627. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101627 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of a material for simultaneous sustained and localized delivery of antibiotics and induction of spontaneous regeneration of hard tissues affected by osteomyelitis stands for an important clinical need. In this work, a comparative analysis of the bacterial and osteoblastic cell response to two different nanoparticulate carriers of clindamycin, an antibiotic commonly prescribed in the treatment of bone infection, one composed of calcium phosphate and the other comprising poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-coated calcium phosphate, was carried out. Three different non-cytotoxic phases of calcium phosphate, exhibiting dissolution and drug release profiles in the range of one week to two months to one year, respectively, were included in the analysis: monetite, amorphous calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. Spherical morphologies and narrow size distribution of both types of nanopowders were confirmed in transmission and scanning electron microscopic analyses. The antibiotic-containing powders exhibited sustained drug release contingent upon the degradation rate of the carrier. Assessment of the antibacterial performance of the antibiotic-encapsulated powders against Staphylococcus aureus, the most common pathogen isolated from infected bone, yielded satisfactory results both in broths and on blood agar plates for all the analyzed powders. In contrast, no cytotoxic behavior was detected upon the incubation of the antibiotic powders with the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line for up to three weeks. The cells were shown to engage in a close contact with the antibiotic-containing particles, irrespective of their internal or surface phase composition, polymeric or mineral. At the same time, both types of particles upregulated the expression of osteogenic markers osteocalcin, osteopontin, Runx2 and protocollagen type I, suggesting their ability to promote osteogenesis and enhance remineralization of the infected site in addition to eliminating the bacterial source of infection.
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