What Would Patsy Mink Think?
ABSTRACT In 1972, the Education Amendments of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 were passed.1 Title IX of these amendments, among other things, prevented institutions of higher education from discriminating against women in admissions. Prior to Title IX, only about 10% of US medical students were women. Title IX had a personal impact on my life because I entered medical school in 1974. I recently asked separately several women students if they knew what Title IX was. None did.
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ABSTRACT: A role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders proposes that perceived incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles leads to 2 forms of prejudice: (a) perceiving women less favorably than men as potential occupants of leadership roles and (b) evaluating behavior that fulfills the prescriptions of a leader role less favorably when it is enacted by a woman. One consequence is that attitudes are less positive toward female than male leaders and potential leaders. Other consequences are that it is more difficult for women to become leaders and to achieve success in leadership roles. Evidence from varied research paradigms substantiates that these consequences occur, especially in situations that heighten perceptions of incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles.Psychological Review 08/2002; 109(3):573-98. DOI:10.1037//0033-295X.109.3.573 · 7.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose. To determine how faculty's perceptions of medical school gender climate differ by gender, track, rank, and departmental affiliation. Method. In 1997, a 115-item questionnaire was sent to all University of Wisconsin Medical School faculty to assess their perceptions of mentoring, networking, professional environment, obstacles to a successful academic career, and reasons for considering leaving academic medicine. Using Fisher's exact two-tailed test, the authors assessed gender differences both overall and by track, rank, and departmental cluster. Results. Of the 836 faculty on tenure, clinician-educator, and clinical tracks, 507 (61%) responded. Although equal proportions of men and women had mentors, 24% of the women (compared with 6% of men; p < .001) felt that informal networking excluded faculty based on gender. Women's and men's perceptions differed significantly (p < .001) on 12 of 16 professional environment items (p < .05 on two of these items) and on five of six items regarding obstacles to academic success. While similar percentages of women and men indicated having seriously considered leaving academic medicine, their reasons differed: women cited work-family conflicts (51%), while men cited uncompetitive salaries (59%). These gender differences generally persisted across tracks, ranks, and departmental clusters. The greatest gender differences occurred among clinician-educators, associate professors, and primary care faculty. Conclusions. Women faculty perceived that gender climate created specific, serious obstacles to their professional development. Many of those obstacles (e.g., inconvenient meeting times and lack of child care) are remediable. These data suggest that medical schools can improve the climate and retain and promote women by more inclusive networking, attention to meeting times and child care, and improved professional interactions between men and women faculty.Academic Medicine 05/2000; 75(6):653-660. DOI:10.1097/00001888-200006000-00019 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent guidelines for the Medical Student Performance Evaluation (MSPE) have standardized the "dean's letter." The authors examined MSPEs for linguistic differences according to student or author gender. This 2009 study analyzed 297 MSPEs for 227 male and 70 female medical students applying to a diagnostic radiology residency program. Text analysis software identified word counts, categories, frequencies, and contexts; factor analysis detected patterns of word categories in student-author gender pairings. Analyses showed a main effect for student gender (P=.046) and a group difference for the author-student gender combinations (P=.048). Female authors of male student MSPEs used the fewest "positive emotion" words (P=.006). MSPEs by male authors were shorter than those by females (P=.014). MSPEs for students ranked in the National Resident Matching Program contained more "standout" (P=.002) and "positive emotion" (P=.001) words. There were no differences in the author-gender pairs in the proportion of students ranked, although predominant word categories differed by author and student gender. Factor analysis revealed differences among the author-student groups in patterns of correlations among word categories. MSPEs differed slightly but significantly by student and author gender. These differences may derive from societal norms for male and female behaviors and the subsequent linguistic interpretation of these behaviors, which itself may be colored by the observer's gender. Although the differences in MSPEs did not seem to influence students' rankings, this work underscores the need for awareness of the complex effects of gender in evaluating students and guiding their specialty choices.Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 01/2011; 86(1):59-66. DOI:10.1097/ACM.0b013e318200561d · 2.34 Impact Factor