Levels of Plasma trans-Fatty Acids in Non-Hispanic White Adults in the United States in 2000 and 2009

National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 02/2012; 307(6):562-3. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2012.112
Source: PubMed
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    • "Although data on the intake of trans-fatty acids were not available, a recent analysis showed that concentrations of these fats in white U.S. adults halved from 2000 to 2009 suggesting that the intake of these fats decreased [32]. Thus, some of the unexplained proportion of the decrease concentrations of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol may reflect decreased consumption of trans-fatty acids. "
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to examine the relative contributions of changes in dietary fat intake and use of cholesterol-lowering medications to changes in concentrations of total cholesterol among adults in the United States from 1988-1994 to 2007-2008. We used data from adults aged 20-74 years who participated in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1988-1994 to 2007-2008. The effect of change in dietary fat intake on concentrations of total cholesterol was estimated by the use of equations developed by Keys, Hegsted, and successors. Age-adjusted mean concentrations of total cholesterol were 5.60 mmol/L (216 mg/dl) during 1988-1994 falling to 5.09 mmol/L (197 mg/dl) in 2007-2008 (P<0.001). No significant changes in the intake of total fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and dietary cholesterol were observed from 1988-1994 to 2007-2008. However, the age-adjusted use of cholesterol-lowering medications increased from 1.6% to 12.5% (P<0.001). The various equations suggested that changes in dietary fat made minimal contributions to the observed trend in mean concentrations of total cholesterol. The increased use of cholesterol-lowering medications was estimated to account for approximately 46% of the change. Mean concentrations of total cholesterol among adults in the United States have declined by ∼4% since 1988-1994. The increased use of cholesterol-lowering medications has apparently accounted for about half of this small fall. Further substantial decreases in cholesterol might be potentially achievable by implementing effective and feasible public health interventions to promote the consumption of a more healthful diet by US adults. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e65228. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0065228 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recommended consumption of fat has been changed multiple times by the USDA's Dietary Guidelines for Americans in the past decade due to expanding nutrition knowledge. Not only the amount of fat, but the type of fat in the American diet is considered for recommendations to health and food production. Saturated fats in general have long been shown to contribute to chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and obesity. In response to consumers' demands for healthier food products, food manufacturers started using the hydrogenation process to lower the saturated fat content of foods. However, research on health implications and subsequent policy changes of these trans fatty acids, such as listing trans fat content on food label nutrition facts, led the same food companies to re-evaluate the hydrogenation process, or production of trans fat, and begin using alternatives to partially hydrogenated oils. Fifteen food companies were contacted through their websites and surveyed about what kinds of oils and/or methods they used to replace the previously used partially hydrogenated oils in their food products to maintain standards for taste and texture. This research and literature review reveals that food companies are back to using saturated fats and tropical oils, especially coconut oil, instead of the cheap trans fats in their products. Contradicting facts on saturated fats and coconut oil are further explored, with the emphasis on the beneficial functions of coconut oil. Putting research in perspective, the future of food manufacturing processes is dependent on continued research on the health implications and differences between these types of fats in the American diet.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper uses stochastic dominance to measure changes in the distribution of overall dietary quality in the U.S. over the period 1989{2008. Diet quality is often used as as a proxy for wellbeing and an outcome variable for a wide variety of interventions. For the population as a whole, we nd signi cant improvements in diets across all levels of dietary quality. Further, we nd improvements for both low-income and higher-income individuals alike. We show that the improvements vary between these groups with regards to the timing and distributional location. Further, we nd that over half of the improvement for all individuals can be explained by changes in food formulation and changes in demographics.
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