Article

Using adjunctive treatments when first-line antidepressants fail.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, PA, USA.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.14). 01/2012; 73(1):e01. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.10126tx4c
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Treatment-resistant depression is a common challenge for clinicians, as the majority of patients with depression do not achieve remission after an initial antidepressant trial. Major strategies for managing treatment-resistant depression include switching to another antidepressant or augmenting the initial antidepressant with another medication. Switching may be appropriate for patients experiencing little or no symptom relief or intolerable side effects with the initial antidepressant. For patients who experience partial response from the first-line antidepressant, adjunctive therapies avoid the loss of this response and the wash-out and cross-titration that are required when switching antidepressants. Several effective antidepressant augmentation agents are available, including lithium, thyroid hormone, anti-anxiety medications, and atypical antipsychotics. The evidence for the efficacy and risks of these strategies is discussed.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Hospital practitioners are regularly facing treatment-resistant depression, which may be defined according to the clinical picture or according to the therapeutic strategy. There are different levels of resistance and different levels of evidence for this resistance. Indeed, the notions of relative and absolute resistance describe the adequacy of assigned treatment. It thus seems necessary to specify the psychopathology of treatment-resistant depression and to highlight the endogeneity phenomenon in order to solve this problem. Objective Our work addresses the concept of endogeneity (previously clarified by Hubertus Tellenbach) and will consider its implications in the management of treatment-resistant depression. We attempt to demonstrate that the phenomenological approach is an interesting tool in clinical practice through the highlight of endogenous characteristics. Method The first step consists in specifying the endogenous phenomena: abolition of rhythms, loss of the forward-looking deployment, overall impression, and reversibility, spatial and temporal characteristics from the phenotype. Our phenomenological approach continues by exploring the false resistances. Hence, we take into account anxious comorbidity, medical comorbidity, addictions, personality disorders and the hypothesis of a bipolar diathesis. First of all, it is difficult to show the patient in which way their behaviour results in stagnation. Indeed, it could strengthen the internal move that leads to an imperious necessity to cope with the surroundings. The psychotherapeutic help is elaborated by specifically highlighting the pathogenic situations whilst also taking into account the difficulties of an authentic therapeutic alliance. Results Our approach emphasizes the endogeneity phenomenon in depression, permitting the search for an optimal therapeutic strategy. It also provides assistance in resolving false resistance or what is apparent. In cases of endogenous depression, therapeutic orientation favours pharmacological and instrumental strategies (brain stimulation). If elements of self-understanding can be given to the patient, they must show that the rigid way in which the patient appropriates the daily reports is more stressful than the choice. Therefore, the psychotherapeutic help must take into account the situation and the individual vulnerability so as to develop a suitable care.
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    ABSTRACT: Hospital practitioners are regularly facing treatment-resistant depression, which may be defined according to the clinical picture or according to the therapeutic strategy. There are different levels of resistance and different levels of evidence for this resistance. Indeed, the notions of relative and absolute resistance describe the adequacy of assigned treatment. It thus seems necessary to specify the psychopathology of treatment-resistant depression and to highlight the endogeneity phenomenon in order to solve this problem. Our work addresses the concept of endogeneity (previously clarified by Hubertus Tellenbach) and will consider its implications in the management of treatment-resistant depression. We attempt to demonstrate that the phenomenological approach is an interesting tool in clinical practice through the highlight of endogenous characteristics. The first step consists in specifying the endogenous phenomena: abolition of rhythms, loss of the forward-looking deployment, overall impression, and reversibility, spatial and temporal characteristics from the phenotype. Our phenomenological approach continues by exploring the false resistances. Hence, we take into account anxious comorbidity, medical comorbidity, addictions, personality disorders and the hypothesis of a bipolar diathesis. First of all, it is difficult to show the patient in which way their behaviour results in stagnation. Indeed, it could strengthen the internal move that leads to an imperious necessity to cope with the surroundings. The psychotherapeutic help is elaborated by specifically highlighting the pathogenic situations whilst also taking into account the difficulties of an authentic therapeutic alliance. Our approach emphasizes the endogeneity phenomenon in depression, permitting the search for an optimal therapeutic strategy. It also provides assistance in resolving false resistance or what is apparent. In cases of endogenous depression, therapeutic orientation favours pharmacological and instrumental strategies (brain stimulation). If elements of self-understanding can be given to the patient, they must show that the rigid way in which the patient appropriates the daily reports is more stressful than the choice. Therefore, the psychotherapeutic help must take into account the situation and the individual vulnerability so as to develop a suitable care.
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