Complex etiology underlies risk and survival in head and neck cancer human papillomavirus, tobacco, and alcohol: a case for multifactor disease.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.
Journal of Oncology 01/2012; 2012:571862. DOI: 10.1155/2012/571862
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Findings are inconsistent about whether tobacco, alcohol, and human papillomavirus (HPV) are two independent HNC risk factor groups that distinguish an infection-associated cancer from a tobacco/alcohol-associated HNC. We found that cancer in the oral cavity risk was greater in HPV-E6/E7 seropositive/heavy tobacco users (adjusted OR = 3.5) than in HPV-seronegative/heavy tobacco users (adjusted OR = 1.4); and HPV-seropositive/heavy alcohol users (adjusted OR = 9.8) had greater risk than HPV-seronegative/heavy alcohol users (adjusted OR = 3.1). In contrast, the risk of oropharyngeal cancer was greater in the HPV-seronegative/heavy tobacco (adjusted OR = 11.0) than in HPV-seropositive/heavy tobacco (adjusted OR = 4.7) users and greater in HPV-seronegative/heavy alcohol users (adjusted OR = 24.3) compared to HPV-seropositive/heavy alcohol users (adjusted OR = 8.5). Disease-specific and recurrence-free adjusted survival were significantly worse in oropharyngeal HPV-seronegative cases with no survival differences by HPV status seen in oral cavity cases. The association between tobacco/alcohol, HPV, and tumor site is complex. There appear to be distinct tumor site differences in the combined exposure risks, suggesting that different molecular pathways are involved.

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    ABSTRACT: Background. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been proved as one of the etiological factors of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Patients with tumors of viral etiology have a lower recurrence rate and better prognosis. OPSCC is linked to an alteration in the immune system. Only a limited number of studies have correlated both the immunological parameters and HPV status with patient prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether HPV infection and the immunological status influence patient prognosis individually or in concurrence. Material and Methods. Sixty patients with oral and oropharyngeal carcinomas were enrolled. They were divided into HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups based on the expression of HPV 16 E6 mRNA. Basic lymphocyte subpopulations were determined in the peripheral blood by means of flow cytometry. Results. Significantly better disease-specific survival (DSS) was observed in patients with HPV-positive tumors. Nodal status, tumor grade, recurrence, and CD8+/Tregs ratio were identified as factors influencing DSS. A higher level of Tregs and a lower ratio of CD8/Tregs influenced overall survival (OS) independently of HPV status and age. Patients with HPV-positive tumors and high levels of Tregs survived significantly better than patients from the other groups. Conclusion. Better survival is associated with HPV positivity and elevated Tregs levels. Our data suggest that HPV infection and Tregs do not influence patient prognosis in concurrence.
    BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:303929. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the sixth most common human malignancy worldwide. The main forms of treatment for HNC are surgery, radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT). However, the choice of therapy depends on the tumor staging and approaches, which are aimed at organ preservation. Because of systemic RT and CT genotoxicity, one of the important side effects is a secondary cancer that can result from the activity of radiation and antineoplastic drugs on healthy cells. Ionizing radiation can affect the DNA, causing single and double-strand breaks, DNA-protein crosslinks and oxidative damage. The severity of radiotoxicity can be directly associated with the radiation dosimetry and the dose-volume differences. Regarding CT, cisplatin is still the standard protocol for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma, the most common cancer located in the oral cavity. However, simultaneous treatment with cisplatin, bleomycin and 5-fluorouracil or treatment with paclitaxel and cisplatin are also used. These drugs can interact with the DNA, causing DNA crosslinks, double and single-strand breaks and changes in gene expression. Currently, the late effects of therapy have become a recurring problem, mainly due to the increased survival of HNC patients. Herein, we present an update of the systemic activity of RT and CT for HNC, with a focus on their toxicogenetic and toxicogenomic effects.
    World journal of clinical oncology. 05/2014; 5(2):93-102.
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    ABSTRACT: An HPV infection is involved in the etiology of about 25 % of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). It has been postulated that a strong antitumoral immune response in HPV-positive tumors represents an important underlying mechanism for their good response to therapy. Recently, the Warburg phenomenon has returned to the center of attention because it affects antitumoral immune response and response to therapy. Accumulation of tumor cell-derived lactate inhibits cytotoxic T cells, as these, analogous to cancer cells, depend on glycolysis and lactate secretion for fulfillment of energy needs. Sparse information exists on the Warburg effect in HNSCC. This study aimed to characterize the metabolic and immunological features of HPV-negative and HPV-positive HNSCC. An immunohistochemical analysis of oropharyngeal carcinomas showed an enhanced antitumoral immune response (CD8/CD4 ratio) together with increased levels of proteins involved in transmembranous metabolite transportation (GLUT1 and CD147) and respiratory metabolism (COX5B) in HPV-positive tumors as compared to HPV-negative tumors. mRNA and Western blot analyses of an HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC cell line revealed metabolic characteristics similar to the in vivo situation. Additionally, the HPV-negative cell line showed stronger extracellular lactate accumulation. In contrast, the HPV-positive cell line presented with better adaption to lactic acidosis suggesting an ability to metabolize lactate. Our results indicate that HPV-positive and HPV-negative carcinomas do not only differ in terms of tumor immune microenvironment, but also in terms of tumor metabolism, characterized by an increased glucose and respiratory metabolism together with decreased lactate accumulation in HPV-positive HNSCC. Therefore, targeting metabolic pathways could represent a promising adjunct in the therapy of HPV-positive HNSCC.
    Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 07/2014; · 2.56 Impact Factor

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