BRAF-mutated, Microsatellite-stable Adenocarcinoma of the Proximal Colon: An Aggressive Adenocarcinoma With Poor Survival, Mucinous Differentiation, and Adverse Morphologic Features
ABSTRACT The association of BRAF V600E mutation and the presence of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and microsatellite instability (MSI) often confound analysis of BRAF mutation status and survival in colorectal carcinoma. We evaluated a consecutive series of proximal colonic adenocarcinomas for mismatch repair protein abnormalities/MSI, BRAF V600E mutation, and KRAS mutations in an attempt to determine the prognostic significance of these abnormalities and to correlate histopathologic features with molecular alterations. Of the 259 proximal colon adenocarcinomas analyzed for mismatch repair protein abnormalities and/or MSI, 181 proximal colonic adenocarcinomas demonstrated proficient DNA mismatch repair using either MSI PCR (n=78), mismatch repair protein immunohistochemistry (n=91), or both MSI PCR and mismatch repair immunohistochemistry (n=12); these were tested for the BRAF V600E mutation and KRAS mutations. Compared with BRAF wild-type adenocarcinomas, BRAF-mutated adenocarcinomas more frequently demonstrated adverse histologic features such as lymphatic invasion (16/20, 80% vs. 75/161, 47%; P=0.008), mean number of lymph node metastases (4.5 vs. 2.2; P=0.01), perineural invasion (8/20, 40% vs. 13/161, 8%; P=0.0004), and high tumor budding (16/20, 80% vs. 83/161, 52%; P=0.02). BRAF-mutated adenocarcinomas frequently contained areas with mucinous histology (P=0.0002) and signet ring histology (P=0.03), compared with KRAS-mutated and KRAS/BRAF wild-type adenocarcinomas. Clinical follow-up data were available for 173 proximal colonic adenocarcinomas with proficient DNA mismatch repair. Patients with BRAF-mutated adenocarcinomas had a median survival of 12.3 months with a 1-year probability of survival of 54% and a 1-year disease-free survival of 56%. Patients with KRAS-mutated and KRAS/BRAF wild-type adenocarcinomas had significantly improved overall survival (unadjusted log-rank P=0.03 and unadjusted log-rank P=0.0002, respectively) and disease-free survival (unadjusted log-rank P=0.02 and unadjusted log-rank P=0.02, respectively) compared with patients with BRAF-mutated adenocarcinomas. When adjusting for tumor stage, survival analysis demonstrated that patients with BRAF-mutated adenocarcinoma had a significantly poor overall survival and disease-free survival (hazard ratios 6.63, 95% CI, 2.60-16.94; and 6.08, 95% CI, 2.11-17.56, respectively) compared with patients with KRAS/BRAF wild-type adenocarcinomas. No significant difference in overall or disease-free survival was identified between patients with KRAS-mutated and KRAS/BRAF wild-type adenocarcinomas. Our results demonstrate that BRAF-mutated proximal colon adenocarcinomas with proficient DNA mismatch repair have a dismal prognosis with an aggressive clinical course and often display mucinous differentiation, focal signet ring histology, and other adverse histologic features such as lymphatic and perineural invasion and high tumor budding.
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ABSTRACT: In colorectal carcinoma the evaluation of BRAF mutation status is increasingly being performed given its utility as a prognostic and predictive biomarker. However, there are conflicting reports of the sensitivity and specificity of BRAF V600E immunohistochemistry (IHC), and little is known about its reliability in tissues collected from metastatic sites or after chemotherapy, radiation therapy and/or targeted therapy. The degree of intratumoral staining heterogeneity is also not well established. We performed IHC for BRAF V600E (VE1) on 204 cases of colorectal carcinoma including 59 with the BRAF V600E mutation. These included primary (n=147) and metastatic/recurrent (n=57) tumors, collected before (n=133) or after (n=71) chemotherapy, radiation therapy and/or targeted therapy. Evaluation of a test cohort (39 cases) with knowledge of mutation status established a specific staining pattern for the mutation: diffuse cytoplasmic staining of near-uniform intensity, regardless of strength of staining. Using this pattern, pathologists at 3 levels of training independently performed blinded evaluation of the remaining cases. BRAF V600E staining was 96.3% sensitive and 98.5% specific for the mutation, including both pretreatment and posttreatment specimens. Fleiss κ for interobserver agreement was 0.96. Staining of whole sections of the BRAF mutants showed diffuse staining in all cases and uniform or near-uniform intensity in 91%. In 20 cases with both pretreatment and posttreatment specimens, there was 100% accuracy and agreement in staining between samples. We conclude that BRAF V600E IHC is reliable for the evaluation of mutational status in colorectal carcinoma regardless of site or prior treatment history, and staining shows a high degree of intratumoral homogeneity.American Journal of Surgical Pathology 06/2014; DOI:10.1097/PAS.0000000000000263 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: KRAS mutation occurs in 35%-40% of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of our study was to evaluate the pathological and molecular features of specific KRAS mutated colorectal carcinomas. KRAS and BRAF (V600E) mutation tests were performed in 762 primary tumors from a consecutive cohort study of Chinese CRC patients. DNA mismatch repair (MMR) status was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. Assessment of KRAS and BRAF V600E mutational status was performed using a multiplex allele-specific PCR-based assay. Mutations of KRAS (34.8%) and BRAF (V600E) (3.1%) were nearly mutually exclusive. Both KRAS- and BRAF- mutated tumors were more likely to be located at proximal colon than wild-type (WT) carcinomas. KRAS-mutated carcinomas were more frequently observed in female patients (47.5% vs 37.1%, p = 0.005) and mucinous differentiation (34.7% vs 24.8%, p = 0.004), but have no difference between lymph node (LN) metastases and among pTNM stages. Whereas, BRAF-mutated carcinomas more frequently demonstrated histologic features such as proximal location (60.9% vs 20.9%, p = 0.001), low-grade histology (43.5% vs 18.0%, p = 0.005), mucinous differentiation (69.6% vs 25.9%, p = 0.001) and deficient MMR (dMMR) (21.7% vs 7.6%, p = 0.03). In particular, KRAS codon 12 mutated carcinomas had increased lymph node metastasis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04 to 1.65; P = 0.02) and were more likely in higher disease stage (III-IV) than that of WT carcinomas (OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.64; P = 0.03). However, there were no significant differences in lymph node metastasis and disease stage between KRAS codon 13 mutated carcinoma and WT carcinoma patients. In summary, KRAS codon 12 mutation, but not codon 13 mutation, is associated with lymph node metastasis and higher tumor stages.BMC Cancer 05/2015; 15(1):340. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1345-3 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate gene mutations and DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein abnormality in Chinese colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients and their correlations with clinicopathologic features. Clinical and pathological information for 535 patients including 538 tumors was reviewed and recorded. Mutation analyses for exon 2 of KRAS gene and exon 15 of BRAF gene were performed by Sanger sequencing except that in 9 tumors amplification refractory mutation system PCR was used. Expression of MMR proteins including MHL1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Correlations of KRAS and BRAF mutation status and the expression status of MMR proteins with age, gender, cancer stage, location, and histology were analyzed. Correlations between KRAS or BRAF mutations and MMR protein expression were also explored. The overall frequencies of KRAS and BRAF mutations were 37.9% and 4.4%, respectively. KRAS mutations were more common in patients ≥ 50 years old (39.8% vs 22% in patients < 50 years old, P < 0.05). The frequencies of BRAF mutants were higher in tumors from females (6.6% vs males 2.8%, P < 0.05), located in the right colon (9.6% vs 2.1% in the left colon, 1.8% in the rectum, P < 0.01), with mucinous differentiation (9.8% vs 2.8% without mucinous differentiation, P < 0.01), or being poorly differentiated (9.5% vs 3.4% well/moderately differentiated, P < 0.05). MMR deficiency was strongly associated with proximal location (20.5% in the right colon vs 9.2% in the left colon and 5.1% in the rectum, P < 0.001), early cancer stage (15.0% in stages I-II vs 7.7% in stages III-IV, P < 0.05), and mucinous differentiation (20.2% vs 9.2% without mucin, P < 0.01). A higher frequency of MLH1/PMS2 loss was found in females (9.2% vs 4.4% in males, P < 0.05), and MSH2/MSH6 loss tended to be seen in younger (<50 years old) patients (12.0% vs 4.0% ≥ 50 years old, P < 0.05). MMR deficient tumors were less likely to have KRAS mutations (18.8% vs 41.7% in MMR proficient tumors, P < 0.05) and tumors with abnormal MLH1/PMS2 tended to harbor BRAF mutations (15.4% vs 4.2% in MMR proficient tumors, P < 0.05). The frequency of sporadic CRCs having BRAF mutation, MLH1 deficiency and MSI in Chinese population may be lower than that in the Western population.