Clinical management of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Florida Hospital Diabetes Institute, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, Orlando, FL 32804, USA.
Postgraduate Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.97). 01/2012; 124(1):133-43. DOI: 10.3810/pgm.2012.01.2526
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT With an increase in life expectancy of the general population comes an increase in the number of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although the pharmacologic treatment options for elderly patients with T2DM are the same as for younger adults, management of this growing group poses unique challenges. Changes in renal and hepatic function and an increased prevalence of multiple comorbidities mandate an individually tailored treatment strategy that balances treatment benefits with the patient's functional status and risk for hypoglycemia and polypharmacy. This approach is hampered by the relative paucity of data regarding the pharmacotherapy of T2DM in older adults, necessitating clinical guidance based on data extrapolated from a younger population. Most current guidelines are disease-focused and do not include specific instructions on how to prioritize the treatment of hyperglycemia relative to that of other comorbidities and the functional status of patients. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, comorbidities, pharmacokinetic considerations, treatment goals, guidelines, and treatment options for the elderly population, and highlights the current knowledge gaps complicating the management of T2DM in this population.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate whether non-surgical periodontal treatment can reduce the HbA1c% level in type 2 diabetic patients. Recent accumulation of RCTs necessitates updating of the findings of previous reviews. A search of the literature on English publications was conducted in Cochrane CENTRAL, Medline and EMBASE (until 31 March 2012). An RCT was selected if the study population was type 2 diabetic patients (≥16 years old) diagnosed with periodontitis, and compared HbA1c% change with or without non-surgical periodontal treatment for at least three months of the study duration. Weighted mean differences for pooled data and antibiotic use strata were calculated. Heterogeneity and publication bias were explored. A total of 358 articles were identified but only six were suitable. Compared to the control group, the pooled analysis (n = 422) showed -0.41% (95% CI: -0.73% to -0.09%, p = 0.013) absolute difference in HbA1c% with treatment. Studies without adjunctive antibiotic had HbA1c% change of -0.64% (95% CI: -1.06% to -0.23%, p = 0.002), but we could not conclude on the effect of adjunctive antibiotic use (p = 0.734). Publication bias was significant with Egger's test (p = 0.014) but not with Begg's test (p = 0.06). The meta-analysis suggested that non-surgical periodontal treatment was associated with a reduction in HbA1c%.
    Australian Dental Journal 09/2013; 58(3):350-7. · 1.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic metabolic state involving heterogeneous and dynamic changes between the normal and diabetic state. The present study aimed to investigate the endocrine regulation of endothelium-dependent dysfunction in middle-aged patients with IGT and in patients with a normal glucose tolerance (NGT). An oral glucose tolerance test was performed to determine the NGT and IGT states. Physiological and biochemical analyses were performed. The carotid artery structure and function were investigated with Doppler supersonic diagnostic equipment. The functioning of the vascular endothelium was analyzed with physiological and biochemical indices in the IGT group. The results showed a significant reduction in endothelium-dependent vasodilation, but not in endothelium-independent vasodilation in the IGT group compared with those of the NGT group. It was identified that the intima-media thickness of the carotid artery and expression levels of endothelin-1 were significantly higher, whereas the endothelium-derived factor C-type natriuretic peptide levels were significantly lower in the IGT group compared with those in the NGT group. Notably, significant correlations were identified between endocrinological changes and body composition, including fat and glucose metabolism, in the IGT group. Our data indicate that vascular endothelial functions may be impaired by fat and glucose metabolism and body composition in IGT patients during prediabetes mellitusare.
    Experimental and therapeutic medicine 03/2014; 7(3):697-702. · 0.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are a rapidly emerging population that presents unique clinical challenges. This diverse patient group can differ widely in terms of physical and mental status, which can increase their risk of complications including hypoglycemia, falls, and depression. These factors can negatively impact their glycemic control, safety, and quality of life. The risk of hypoglycemic events is elevated among elderly patients with diabetes. In many cases, these events are related to antidiabetic therapy and the pursuit of strict glycemic control. Fear of a hypoglycemic episode, on the part of the patient and/or healthcare provider, is another major barrier to achieving glycemic control. Hypoglycemic events, even in the absence of awareness of the event (asymptomatic), can have negative consequences. To help manage these risks, several national and international organizations have proposed guidelines to address individualized treatment goals for older adults with diabetes. This article reviews current treatment guidelines for setting glycemic targets in elderly patients with T2DM, and discusses the role of emerging treatment options in this patient population.
    Diabetes therapy : research, treatment and education of diabetes and related disorders. 10/2013;