Economic Impact of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in a Large Matched Cohort
ABSTRACT To evaluate the economic impact of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) on length of stay and hospital costs. Design. Retrospective matched cohort study.
Premier database of hospitals in the United States.
Eligible patients were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), received mechanical ventilation for ≥2 calendar-days, and were discharged between October 1, 2008, and December 31, 2009.
VAP was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), code 997.31 and ventilation charges for ≥2 calendar-days. We matched patients with VAP to patients without VAP by propensity score on the basis of demographics, administrative data, and severity of illness. Cost was based on provider perspective and procedural cost accounting methods.
Of 88,689 eligible patients, 2,238 (2.5%) had VAP; the incidence rate was 1.27 per 1,000 ventilation-days. In the matched cohort, patients with VAP ([Formula: see text]) had longer mean durations of mechanical ventilation (21.8 vs 10.3 days), ICU stay (20.5 vs 11.6 days), and hospitalization (32.6 vs 19.5 days; all [Formula: see text]) than patients without VAP ([Formula: see text]). Mean hospitalization costs were $99,598 for patients with VAP and $59,770 for patients without VAP ([Formula: see text]), resulting in an absolute difference of $39,828. Patients with VAP had a lower in-hospital mortality rate than patients without VAP (482/2,144 [22.5%] vs 630/2,144 [29.4%]; [Formula: see text]).
Our findings suggest that VAP continues to occur as defined by the new specific ICD-9 code and is associated with a statistically significant resource utilization burden, which underscores the need for cost-effective interventions to minimize the occurrence of this complication.
Critical Care Medicine 01/2015; 43(1):227-9. DOI:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000758 · 6.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To perform a population-based analysis to compare the complications and cost of laparoscopic and robotically assisted adnexal surgery. A nationwide database was used to analyze the use and outcomes of robotically assisted adnexal surgery from 2009 to 2012. Multivariable mixed effects regression models were developed to examine predictors of use of robotic surgery. After propensity score matching, complications and cost were compared between robotically assisted and laparoscopic surgery. Eighty-seven thousand five hundred fourteen women were identified. From 2009 to 2012, performance of robotic-assisted oophorectomy increased from 3.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2-3.8%) to 15.0% (95% CI 14.4-15.6%), whereas robotically assisted cystectomy rose from 2.4% (95% CI 2.0-2.7%) to 12.9% (95% CI 12.2-13.5%). The overall complication rate was 7.1% (95% CI 4.0-10.2%) for robotically assisted compared with 6.0% (95% CI 2.9-9.1%) for laparoscopic oophorectomy (odds ratio [OR] 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.45; P=.052). Robotic-assisted oophorectomy was associated with a higher rate of intraoperative complications (3.4% compared with 2.1%, OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.21-2.13). The overall complication rate was 3.7% (95% CI -0.8 to 8.2%) after robotically assisted compared with 2.7% (95% CI -1.8 to 7.2%) for laparoscopic cystectomy (OR 1.38, 95% CI 0.95-1.99). The intraoperative complication rate was higher for robotically assisted cystectomy (2.0% compared with 0.9%, OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.31-4.38). Compared with laparoscopy, robotically assisted oophorectomy was associated with $2,504 (95% CI $2,356-2,652) increased total costs and robotically assisted cystectomy $3,310 (95% CI $3,082-3,581) higher costs. Use of robotically assisted adnexal surgery increased rapidly. Compared with laparoscopic surgery, robotically assisted adnexal surgery is associated with substantially greater costs and a small, but statistically significant, increase in intraoperative complications. : II.Obstetrics and Gynecology 11/2014; 124(5):886-96. DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000483 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nebulized antibiotics are a promising new treatment option for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). However, more evidence of the benefit of this therapy is desired. The Medline, Scopus, EMBASE, Biological Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, CENTRAL, Scielo and Lilacs databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials or matched observational studies that compared nebulized antibiotics with or without intravenous antibiotics to intravenous antibiotics alone for VAP treatment. Two reviewers independently collected data and assessed outcomes and risk of bias. The primary outcome was clinical cure. Secondary outcomes were microbiological cure, ICU and hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay and adverse events. A mixed-effect model meta-analysis was performed. Trial sequential analysis was used for the main outcome of interest. Twelve studies were analyzed, including six randomized controlled trials. For the main outcome analysis, 812 patients were included. Nebulized antibiotics were associated with higher rates of clinical cure (risk ratio (RR) = 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.43; I(2) = 34%; D(2) = 45%). Nebulized antibiotics were not associated with microbiological cure (RR = 1.24; 95% CI, 0.95-1.62; I(2) = 62.5), mortality (RR = 0.90; CI 95%, 0.76-1.08; I(2) = 0%), duration of mechanical ventilation (standardized mean difference = -0.10 days; 95% CI, -1.22 to 1.00; I(2) = 96.5%), ICU length of stay (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.14 days; 95% CI, -0.46 to 0.73; I(2) = 89.2%) or renal toxicity (RR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.57; I(2) = 15.6%). Regarding the primary outcome, the number of patients included was below the information size required for a definitive conclusion by trial sequential analysis; therefore, our results regarding this parameter are inconclusive. Nebulized antibiotics seem to be associated with higher rates of clinical cure in the treatment of VAP. However, the apparent benefit in the clinical cure rate observed by traditional meta-analysis does not persist after trial sequential analysis. Additional high-quality studies on this subject are highly warranted. CRD42014009116 . Registered 29 March 2014.Critical care (London, England) 04/2015; 19(1):150. DOI:10.1186/s13054-015-0868-y