Treatment outcomes of patients on second-line antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings
ABSTRACT A growing proportion of patients on antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings have switched to second-line regimens. We carried out a systematic review in order to summarize reported rates and reasons for virological failure among people on second-line therapy in resource-limited settings.
Two reviewers independently searched four databases and three conference websites. Full text articles were screened and data extracted using a standardized data extraction form.
We retrieved 5812 citations, of which 19 studies reporting second-line failure rates in 2035 patients across low-income and middle-income countries were eligible for inclusion. The cumulative pooled proportion of adult patients failing virologically was 21.8, 23.1, 26.7 and 38.0% at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months, respectively. Most studies did not report adequate information to allow discrimination between drug resistance and poor adherence as reasons for virological failure, but for those that did poor adherence appeared to be the main driver of virological failure. Mortality on second-line was low across all time points.
Rates of virological failure on second-line therapy are high in resource-limited settings and associated with duration of exposure to previous drug regimens and poor adherence. The main concern appears to be poor adherence, rather than drug resistance, from the limited number of studies accessing both factors. Access to treatment options beyond second-line remains limited and, therefore, a cause for a concern for those patients in whom drug resistance is the identified cause of virological failure.
- SourceAvailable from: Kenneth Mayer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The success of global treatment as prevention (TasP) efforts for individuals living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is dependent on successful implementation, and therefore the appropriate contribution of social and behavioral science to these efforts. Understanding the psychosocial context of condomless sex among PLWHA could shed light on effective points of intervention. HPTN 063 was an observational mixed-methods study of sexually active, in-care PLWHA in Thailand, Zambia, and Brazil as a foundation for integrating secondary HIV prevention into HIV treatment. From 2010–2012, 80 qualitative interviews were conducted with PLWHA receiving HIV care and reported recent sexual risk. Thirty men who have sex with women (MSW) and 30 women who have sex with men (WSM) participated in equal numbers across the sites. Thailand and Brazil also enrolled 20 biologically-born men who have sex with men (MSM). Part of the interview focused on the impact of HIV on sexual practices and relationships. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated into English and examined using qualitative descriptive analysis. The mean age was 25 (SD = 3.2). There were numerous similarities in experiences and attitudes between MSM, MSW and WSM across the three settings. Participants had a high degree of HIV transmission risk awareness and practiced some protective sexual behaviors such as reduced sexual activity, increased use of condoms, and external ejaculation. Themes related to risk behavior can be categorized according to struggles for intimacy and fears of isolation, including: fear of infecting a sex partner, guilt about sex, sexual communication difficulty, HIV-stigma, and worry about sexual partnerships. Emphasizing sexual health, intimacy and protective practices as components of nonjudgmental sex-positive secondary HIV prevention interventions is recommended. For in-care PLWHA, this approach has the potential to support TasP. The overlap of themes across groups and countries indicates that similar intervention content may be effective for a range of settings.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120957 · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Data on the effectiveness of second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited countries of Eastern Europe is limited. Objective of this study was to evaluate virological outcomes of second-line ART in Georgia. Methods We conducted retrospective analysis using routinely available program data. Study included adult HIV-infected patients with confirmed HIV drug resistance, who were switched to second-line ART from August 2005 to December 2010. Patients were followed until July 1, 2011. Primary outcome was achievement of viral suppression. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and adherence data were abstracted from medical and program records. Adherence was expressed as percentage based on medication refill data, and was calculated as days supply of medications dispensed divided by days between prescription fills. Predictors of primary outcome were assessed in modified Poisson regression analysis. Results A total of 84 patients were included in the study. Among them 71.4% were men and 62% had history of IDU. All patients were receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase based regimen as initial ART. The mean 6-month adherence prior to virologic failure was 75%, with 31% of patients showing 100% adherence. All patients were switched to protease inhibitor based regimens. Patients were followed for median 27 months. Over this period 9 (10.7%) patients died. Among 80 patients remaining alive at least 6 month after ART regimen switch, 72 (90%) patients ever reached undetectable viral load. The mean first 6-month adherence on second-line treatment was 81%, with 47.5% of patients showing 100% adherence. The proportion of patients achieving viral suppression after 6, 12, 24 and 36 months of second-line ART did not vary significantly ranging from 79 to 83%. Percentage of IDUs achieving viral suppression ranged from 75% and 83%. Factors associated with failure to achieve viral suppression at 6-months of second-line ART were: adherence <80% (Risk ratio [RR] 5.09, 95% CI: 1.89-13.70) and viral load >100,000 at the time of treatment failure (RR 3.39, 95% CI: 1.46-7.89). Conclusions The study demonstrated favourable virological outcomes of the second-line ART in Georgia. Majority of patients, including IDUs, achieved sustained virological response over 36 month period. The findings highlight the need of improving adherence.AIDS Research and Therapy 07/2014; 11:18. DOI:10.1186/1742-6405-11-18 · 1.84 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Multi-drug resistance in treatment-experienced human immune deficiency virus (HIV) patients has been a major cause to first line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure, necessitating a switch to second line therapy. In India, the second line treatment program is still relatively new with little experience and unclear outcomes. It is therefore, critical to assess the clinical, virological and immunological effectiveness and treatment outcome over the 1(st) year of follow-up in the patients' switched to the second line ART at public sector tertiary care center. A prospective, observational study was carried out on HIV positive patients switched on second line ART from January 2010 to December 2010 at ART Centre, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad. Demographic details, symptoms, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), second line ART regimens, CD4 count, and plasma viral load (PVL) were recorded in a case record form. Patients were followed-up monthly for 12 months. The data was analyzed by t-test, z-test, and Fisher-exact test. Out of 126 patients, 82 received regimen V [zidovudine (ZDV) + lamivudine (3TC) + tenofovir (TDF) + boosted lopinavir (LPV/r)] and 44 received regimen Va [3TC + TDF + LPV/r]. A significant (P < 0.0001) increase in mean body weight and marked reduction in number of patients (7) categorized as WHO stage III/IV was observed at 12 months of second line ART. Moreover, a significant immune reconstitution with increase in mean CD4 count and viral suppression (PVL < 400 copies/ml) in 103 (82%) patients (P < 0.0001) was also observed. A total of 83 ADRs were observed in 69 (55%) patients, the most common being dyslipidemia (57) followed by anemia (9). Early treatment outcome with second line ART was good with 82% success rate in treatment experienced HIV patients. Dyslipidemia and anemia were the common ADRs observed.Perspectives in clinical research 03/2013; 4(4):215-220. DOI:10.4103/2229-3485.120170