Persistence of diarrheal pathogens is associated with continued recruitment of plasmablasts in the circulation.
ABSTRACT Intestinal antigen encounter leads to recirculation of antigen-specific plasmablasts via lymphatics and blood back to the intestine. Investigating these gut-originating cells in blood provides a less invasive tool for studying intestinal immune responses, with the limitation that the cells disappear from the circulation in two weeks. No data exist on situations where pathogens persist in the intestine. Patients with Salmonella, Yersinia, or Campylobacter gastroenteritis and volunteers receiving an oral typhoid vaccine were assayed for plasmablasts specific to each subject's own pathogen/antigen weekly until the response faded. In vaccinees, plasmablasts disappeared in two weeks. In gastroenteritis, the response faded 2-3 and 3-7 weeks after the last positive Salmonella or Yersinia stool culture. Even in symptomless patients, pathogens persisting in the intestine keep seeding plasmablasts into the circulation. Assaying these cells might offer a powerful tool for research into diseases in which persisting microbes have a potential pathogenetic significance.
Article: ATM mediates constitutive NF-kappaB activation in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The anti-apoptotic transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is constitutively activated in CD34(+) myeloblasts from high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Inhibition of NF-kappaB by suppressing the canonical NF-kappaB activation pathway, for instance by knockdown of the three subunits of the inhibitor of NF-kappaB (I kappaB) kinase (IKK) complex (IKK1, IKK2 and NEMO) triggers apoptosis in such cells. Here, we show that an MDS/AML model cell line exhibits a constitutive interaction, within the nucleus, of activated, S1981-phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) with NEMO. Inhibition of ATM with two distinct pharmacological inhibitors suppressed the activating autophosphorylation of ATM, blocked the interaction of ATM and NEMO, delocalized NEMO as well as another putative NF-kappaB activator, PIDD, from the nucleus, abolished the activating phosphorylation of the catalytic proteins of the IKK complex (IKK1/2 on serines 176/180), enhanced the expression of I kappaB alpha and caused the relocalization of NF-kappaB from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, followed by apoptosis. Knockdown of ATM with small-interfering RNAs had a similar effect that could not be enhanced by knockdown of NEMO, PIDD and the p65 NF-kappaB subunit, suggesting that an ATM inhibition/depletion truly induced apoptosis through inhibition of the NF-kappaB system. Pharmacological inhibition of ATM also induced the nucleocytoplasmic relocalization of p65 in malignant myeloblasts purified from patients with high-risk MDS or AML, correlating with the induction of apoptosis. Altogether, these results support the contention that constitutively active ATM accounts for the activation of NF-kappaB in high-risk MDS and AML.Oncogene 01/2009; 28(8):1099-109. · 6.37 Impact Factor