Prediction of remission and recovery in young people presenting with first-episode psychosis in Hong Kong: A 3-year follow-up study
ABSTRACT The aim of the current study was to investigate the rates and predictors of symptomatic remission and recovery in patients presenting with first-episode psychosis 3 years after treatment initiation.
Seven hundred participants aged 15-25 years consecutively enrolled in a territory-wide early intervention programme in Hong Kong from July 2001 to August 2003 fulfilled study inclusion criteria, with 539 completing 3-year follow-up. Baseline and follow-up variables were collected via systematic medical file review. The operational criteria for recovery were based on clinical definition incorporating both symptom and functional dimensions.
By the end of 3-year follow-up, 58.8% (n = 317) and 17.4% (n = 94) of participants met criteria for symptomatic remission and recovery, respectively. Around half (51.2%, n = 276) were not remitted either symptomatically or functionally in the last 12 months of follow-up. Of those who achieved sustained symptomatic remission, only 43.1% were also in functional remission. Patients in symptomatic remission had lower rate of admissions, shorter duration of hospitalisations and more favourable psychosocial functioning than non-remitted counterparts. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female sex, older age of onset of psychosis, shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and early symptom resolution predicted symptomatic remission at the end of follow-up. Higher educational attainment, superior baseline occupational status and shorter DUP were found to be predictive of recovery.
In a large representative cohort of Chinese young people presenting with first-episode psychosis, although more than half achieved symptomatic remission 3 years after service entry, the rates of functional remission and recovery were low. More intensive psychosocial interventions may be required to further improve patients' functional outcome.
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ABSTRACT: It is now well established that the utilization of standardized clinical criteria can enhance prediction of psychosis. These criteria are primarily concerned with the presence and severity of attenuated positive symptoms. Because these symptom criteria are used to derive algorithms for designating clinical high risk (CHR) status and for maximizing prediction of psychosis risk, it is important to know whether the symptom ratings vary as a function of demographic factors that have previously been linked with symptoms in diagnosed psychotic patients. Using a sample of 356 CHR individuals from the NAPLS-II multi-site study, we examined the relation of three sex, age, and educational level, with the severity of attenuated positive symptom scores from the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS). Demographic factors accounted for little of the variance in symptom ratings (5-6%). Older CHR individuals manifested more severe suspiciousness, and female CHR participants reported more unusual perceptual experiences than male participants. Contrary to prediction, higher educational level was associated with more severe ratings of unusual thought content, but less severe perceptual abnormalities. Overall, sex, age and education were modestly related to unusual thought content and perceptual abnormalities, only, suggesting minimal implication for designating CHR status and predicting psychosis-risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Schizophrenia Research 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2015.04.035 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Self Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model implicates maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and processes in the predisposition and/or maintenance of positive psychotic symptoms. In the model, metacognitive beliefs guide cognitive and behavioural responses to cognitive experiences. This study tested for relationships between course of illness and levels of specific metacognitions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A large cohort of people with first episode psychosis (n = 578) recruited as part the OPUS trial (1998-2000) were tested. Information about course of illness (remitted, episodic or continually psychotic) and metacognitive belief ratings were collected. Data obtained from 367 participants revealed that levels of maladaptive metacognitive beliefs varied as a function of course of illness and distinguished between remitted patients and non-patients. Metacognitive beliefs explained 17 % additional variance displayed in course of illness in a multinomial regression analysis when controlling for other causal factors. In addition, beliefs concerning Need to Control thoughts (RR 1.13, 95 % CI 1.03-1.22, p < 0.01) predicted a continually psychotic course of illness. Elevations in metacognitive beliefs were associated with the severity and duration of psychotic symptoms, consistent with the S-REF model. Moreover, metacognition was a better predictor of course of illness than anxiety and depression. If these associations are shown to be causal, clinical interventions that modify metacognitive beliefs may also impact on positive symptoms and course of illness within schizophrenia.Cognitive Therapy and Research 02/2015; 39(1):61-69. DOI:10.1007/s10608-014-9633-9 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis. To examine long-term outcomes within a cohort of people with first episode psychosis in relation to symptom remission, functioning and recovery, 10years after diagnosis. The study had a prospective design. Participants from the OPUS trial (1998-2000) (n=496) completed a series of interviews and questionnaires to measure current levels of psychopathology and social/vocational functioning, ten years after diagnosis. Predictors of recovery were identified using socio-demographic and clinical characteristics collected at baseline. A total of 304 participants were interviewed, giving a follow-up rate of 61%. A total of 42 people (14%) met the criteria for symptomatic and psychosocial recovery at 10years. A multivariable binary logistic regression analysis indicated that baseline predictors accounted for 22% of the variance of full recovery. Lower severity of negative symptoms at baseline (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.53, 95% confidence interval CI 0.36-0.78, p<0.001) and earlier age of diagnosis (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.99, p<0.05) predicted better rates of recovery at 10years. Results of this study indicated that negative symptoms could play a central role in the process of recovery from schizophrenia. A challenge for clinicians and researchers is to understand the mechanisms behind negative symptoms and develop interventions that can prevent or ameliorate these symptoms in order to promote recovery.Schizophrenia Research 08/2013; 150(1). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2013.07.031 · 4.43 Impact Factor