Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induction by 2-dodecylcyclobutanone, a radiolytic product of palmitic acid, in human lymphoma U937 cells.
ABSTRACT The irradiation of fat-containing food forms 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) from palmitic acid (PA). In this study, we investigated whether 2-DCB and PA induce apoptosis in human lymphoma U937 cells. We found that cell viability decreased by 2-DCB and apoptosis was induced by 2-DCB and PA. 2-DCB and PA significantly enhanced the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Apoptosis induced by 2-DCB and PA was strongly prevented by an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L: -cysteine. The treatment with 2-DCB and PA resulted in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and Fas, caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. Pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD) significantly inhibited apoptosis induced by 2-DCB and PA. Moreover, 2-DCB and PA also induced Bax up-regulation, the reduction in Bcl-2 expression level, Bid cleavage and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol. In addition, an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was observed after the treatment with 2-DCB and PA. Our results indicated that intracellular ROS generation, the modulation of the Fas-mitochondrion-caspase-dependent pathway and the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) involved in apoptosis are induced by 2-DCB and PA in U937 cells.