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Available from: Paulo J Lorenzoni, Jun 11, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Viruses and virus-induced lymphokines may have an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity (Schattner A. Clin Immunol Immunopathol; 1994). The occurrence and significance of autoimmune manifestations after the administration of viral vaccines remain controversial. Medline search of all relevant publications from 1966 through June 2004 with special emphasis on search of each individual autoimmune manifestation and vaccination, as well as specifically searching each viral vaccine for all potential autoimmune syndromes reported. All relevant publications were retrieved and critically analyzed. The most frequently reported autoimmune manifestations for the various vaccinations, were: hepatitis A virus (HAV)--none; hepatitis B virus (HBV)--rheumatoid arthritis, reactive arthritis, vasculitis, encephalitis, neuropathy, thrombocytopenia; measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR)--acute arthritis or arthralgia, chronic arthritis, thrombocytopenia; influenza--Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), vasculitis; polio--GBS; varicella--mainly neurological syndromes. Even these 'frequent' associations relate to a relatively small number of patients. Whenever controlled studies of autoimmunity following viral vaccines were undertaken, no evidence of an association was found. Very few patients may develop some autoimmune diseases following viral vaccination (in particular - arthropathy, vasculitis, neurological dysfunction and thrombocytopenia). For the overwhelming majority of people, vaccines are safe and no evidence linking viral vaccines with type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis (MS) or inflammatory bowel disease can be found.
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    ABSTRACT: An infectious cause has long been suspected for most forms of vasculitis. In most cases vascular damage has been ascribed to immune-mediated mechanisms rather than direct microbial toxicity. Evidence cited in this review provides further support for a causal role of infection in the vasculitides by strengthening the link between group A streptococci and hepatitis B virus with polyarteritis nodosa and Kawasaki syndrome. It is anticipated that the application of new molecular technology will provide definitive evidence for the role of infection in the etiopathogenesis of the vasculitides.
    Current Opinion in Rheumatology 03/1992; 4(1):35-8. · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using transcranial sonography, an area of hyperechogenicity at the substantia nigra (SN) may be detected as a typical marker in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as in approximately 9% of healthy subjects vulnerable to nigrostriatal impairment. In this longitudinal study, we provide evidence that the area of SN hyperechogenicity does not change in the course of PD. In conjunction with earlier findings in children and adolescents, this evidence indicates that, from late adolescence onward, this ultrasound finding is a trait marker for nigrostriatal vulnerability.
    Movement Disorders 03/2005; 20(3):383-5. DOI:10.1002/mds.20311 · 5.68 Impact Factor