Predicting Depression in Mothers With and Without HIV: The Role of Social Support and Family Dynamics.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, Room 2234GG, College Park, MD, 20742, USA, .
AIDS and Behavior (Impact Factor: 3.49). 02/2012; 16(8):2198-208. DOI: 10.1007/s10461-012-0149-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Many women with HIV are primary caregivers for their children. Social factors, including family dynamics, play a major role in women's depression. We hypothesized an impact of HIV seropositivity on greater depression mediated through poorer family functioning and social support. Participants include 332 Mothers Living with HIV (MLH) and 200 Neighborhood Control Mothers (NCM) recruited in Los Angeles County. The NCM were matched by neighborhood. All had children ages 6 through 20. Analyses using structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated HIV seropositivity was positively correlated with depression and negatively correlated with positive social support and effective family functioning. In a predictive path model, the relationship between having HIV and depressed mood was mediated by social support and family functioning. Findings offer explanation for increased depression resulting from HIV and social and family dynamics, and suggest innovative interventions to abate psychosocial health problems and lower risk for depression among women with HIV.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: When aiming to provide chronic disease care within the context of human resource shortages, we should not only consider the responsibility of the individual person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) but also the capacity of the social environment to actively encourage a lifestyle that fosters health. In this social environment, extensive efforts are thus required to increase HIV/AIDS knowledge, reduce stigma, stimulate HIV testing, improve health care-seeking behavior, and encourage safe sexual practices—described in the literature as the need for AIDS competence. In accordance with socio-ecological theory, one cannot restrict the research focus to communities, as AIDS competence studies should also incorporate the intermediate household level. In responding to this research need, the aim of this article is to conceptualize an “HIV/AIDS competent household” based on qualitative interviews and focus group discussions conducted in a township on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. Our results show that a household’s supportive response to disclosure allows a patient to live openly as HIV positive in the household concerned. This may mark the start of the road to HIV/AIDS competence in the household, meaning the PLWHA receives sustainable support throughout the care continuum and positive living becomes the norm for the PLWHA and his or her household. A feedback loop might also be created in which other household members are encouraged to be tested and to disclose their status, which is an important step towards a sustainable response to HIV/AIDS-related challenges. Despite the fact that this road to HIV/AIDS competence at the household level is fragile and prone to various barriers, this article shows that the household has the potential to be a health-enabling environment for PLWHA.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 03/2015; 12(3):3264-3292. DOI:10.3390/ijerph120303264 · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate prevalence, incidence, remission, and persistence of psychiatric and substance use disorders among HIV-infected mothers and identify biopsychosocial correlates. HIV-infected mothers (n = 1223) of HIV-exposed uninfected children enrolled in a prospective cohort study; HIV-uninfected mothers (n = 128) served as a comparison group. Mothers provided sociodemographic and health information and completed the Client Diagnostic Questionnaire (CDQ). Prevalence of any psychiatric or substance use disorder at initial evaluation was compared between the 2 groups. Incident, remitting, and persisting disorders were identified for 689 mothers with HIV who completed follow-up CDQs. We used logistic regression to evaluate adjusted associations of biopsychosocial characteristics with presence, incidence, remission, and persistence of disorders. Thirty-five percent of mothers screened positive for any psychiatric or substance use disorder at initial evaluation, with no difference by maternal HIV status (P = 1.00). Among HIV-infected mothers, presence of any disorder was associated with younger age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.39; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.75], single parenthood (aOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.68), and functional limitations (aOR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.81 to 2.90). Incident disorders were associated with functional limitations (aOR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.10 to 3.30). Among HIV-infected mothers with a disorder at initial evaluation (n = 238), 61% had persistent disorders. Persistent disorders were associated with lower income (aOR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.33 to 4.76) and functional limitations (aOR: 3.19; 95% CI: 1.87 to 5.48). Receipt of treatment for any disorder was limited: 4.5% at study entry, 7% at follow-up, 5.5% at both entry and follow-up. Psychiatric and substance use disorders remain significant comorbid conditions among HIV-infected mothers and require accessible evidence-informed treatment.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 04/2014; 65(5):526-34. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000070 · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Hope is an essential dimension of successful coping in the context of illnesses such as HIV/AIDS, because positive expectations for the future alleviate emotional distress, enhance quality of life and have been linked to the capacity for behavioural change. The social environment (e.g. family, peers) is a regulator of hope for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). In this regard, the dual aim of this article is (1) to analyze the influence of a peer adherence support (PAS) intervention and the family environment on the state of hope in PLWHA and (2) to investigate the interrelationship between the two determinants. Methods: The Effective AIDS Treatment and Support in the Free State study is a prospective randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited from 12 public antiretroviral treatment (ART) clinics across five districts in the Free State Province of South Africa. Each of these patients was assigned to one of the following groups: a control group receiving standard care, a group receiving additional biweekly PAS or a group receiving PAS and nutritional support. Latent cross-lagged modelling (Mplus) was used to analyse the impact of PAS and the family environment on the level of hope in PLWHA. Results: The results of the study indicate that neither PAS nor the family environment has a direct effect on the level of hope in PLWHA. Subsequent analysis reveals a positive significant interaction between family functioning and PAS at the second follow-up, indicating that better family functioning increases the positive effect of PAS on the state of hope in PLWHA. Conclusions: The interplay between well-functioning families and external PAS generates higher levels of hope, which is an essential dimension in the success of lifelong treatment. This study provides additional insight into the important role played by family dynamics in HIV/AIDS care, and it underscores the need for PAS interventions that are sensitive to the contexts in which they are implemented.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 04/2014; 17(1):18802. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.1.18802 · 4.21 Impact Factor


Available from
May 29, 2014