Viral infection triggers rapid differentiation of human blood monocytes into dendritic cells.
ABSTRACT Surprisingly little is known about the interaction of human blood mononuclear cells with viruses. Here, we show that monocytes are the predominant cell type infected when peripheral blood mononuclear cells are exposed to viruses ex vivo. Remarkably, infection with vesicular stomatitis virus, vaccinia virus, and a variety of influenza A viruses (including circulating swine-origin virus) induces monocytes to differentiate within 18 hours into CD16(-)CD83(+) mature dendritic cells with enhanced capacity to activate T cells. Differentiation into dendritic cells does not require cell division and occurs despite the synthesis of viral proteins, which demonstrates that monocytes counteract the capacity of these highly lytic viruses to hijack host cell biosynthetic capacity. Indeed, differentiation requires infectious virus and viral protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that monocytes are uniquely susceptible to viral infection among blood mononuclear cells, with the likely purpose of generating cells with enhanced capacity to activate innate and acquired antiviral immunity.
Article: The dendritic cell subtype-restricted C-type lectin Clec9A is a target for vaccine enhancement.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A novel dendritic cell (DC)-restricted molecule, Clec9A, was identified by gene expression profiling of mouse DC subtypes. Based on sequence similarity, a human ortholog was identified. Clec9A encodes a type II membrane protein with a single extracellular C-type lectin domain. Both the mouse Clec9A and human CLEC9A were cloned and expressed, and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against each were generated. Surface staining revealed that Clec9A was selective for mouse DCs and was restricted to the CD8(+) conventional DC and plasmacytoid DC subtypes. A subset of human blood DCs also expressed CLEC9A. A single injection of mice with a mAb against Clec9A, which targets antigens (Ags) to the DCs, produced a striking enhancement of antibody responses in the absence of added adjuvants or danger signals, even in mice lacking Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. Such targeting also enhanced CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses. Thus, Clec9A serves as a new marker to distinguish subtypes of both mouse and human DCs. Furthermore, targeting Ags to DCs with antibodies to Clec9A is a promising strategy to enhance the efficiency of vaccines, even in the absence of adjuvants.Blood 08/2008; 112(8):3264-73. · 9.90 Impact Factor