Dietary adequacy of HIV infected individuals in north India - A cross-sectional analysis
ABSTRACT Dietary inadequacy is common in developing countries and so is in immune-deficient HIV infected individuals. Hence, an assessment of dietary patterns was done among a group of HIV infected individuals and compared with recommended dietary allowances.
One hundred consecutive HIV infected individuals were interviewed from the Immunodeficiency Clinic of a tertiary care center at Chandigarh. Dietary intake was assessed by 24 h recall method. Mean carbohydrate, protein and fat intakes were evaluated. Mean difference in the calorie intake from recommended dietary intake was then calculated. Mean absolute CD4 cell count was calculated and correlated with BMI and mean calorie intake.
Mean weight and BMI of the individuals participated in the study was 58.6 ± 11.7 (range, 34 - 94) kg and 21.5 ± 3.7 (range, 13.6 - 36.7) kg/m  , respectively. Mean total calories intake was 1713 ± 292.8 (860 - 2525) calories/day and mean difference in the calories taken from the standard values was 249.5 ± 190.7 (10.6 - 967.5) calories/day. There was no significant correlation between CD4 cell count and total calories taken.
In HIV-infected individuals the energy intake was significantly lower than the recommended average intake. Hence, efforts should be taken to ensure that HIV-infected individuals have access to high-quality, nutritious food choices that promote optimal dietary patterns.
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ABSTRACT: Despite the growing use of patterning methods in nutritional epidemiology, a direct comparison of factor and cluster analysis methods has not been performed. Our main objective was to compare patterns derived from the cluster and factor analysis procedures with measures of plasma lipids. This cross-sectional study included 459 healthy subjects who participated in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging and had measures of diet and plasma lipids. Eating patterns were derived by using both factor and cluster analysis methods. In separate multivariate-adjusted regression models, subjects in the healthy cluster had lower plasma triacylglycerols than did those not in the healthy cluster (beta = -15.97; 95% CI: -29.51, -2.43; P < 0.05), and factor 1 (reduced-fat dairy products, fruit, and fiber) was inversely related to plasma triacylglycerols (beta = -7.02 mg/dL for a one-unit increase in z score; 95% CI: -12.92, -1.12; P < 0.05). Those in the alcohol cluster had higher total cholesterol concentrations than did those not in the alcohol cluster (beta = 12.81; 95% CI: 2.74, 22.88; P < 0.05), and factor 2 (protein and alcohol) was also directly associated with total cholesterol (beta = 1.59 for a one-unit increase in z score; 95% CI: 0.55, 2.63; P < 0.05). The multivariate model containing all of the clusters was not significantly different from the model containing all of the factors in predicting each lipid outcome. Our study provides evidence of comparability between cluster and factor analysis methods in relation to plasma lipid biomarkers.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10/2004; 80(3):759-67. · 6.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The literature is briefly summarized as to how several nutrients affect immune function, susceptibility to infection, and cancer susceptibility or progression. Nutritional deficiencies can impair immunity and so influence susceptibility to infectious agents, including ones that are common and relatively virulent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. A variety of nutrients affect several of the immune functions that are defective in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. For example, beta-carotene increased the number of CD4+ cells; vitamin E decreased the number of CD8+ cells and increased the CD4+/CD8+ ratio; vitamin D decreased the CD4+/CD8+ ratio; and iron increased the number of peripheral lymphocytes in humans receiving supplementation. Furthermore, nutritional deficiencies can influence gastrointestinal function, while infectious diseases can influence nutrient requirements by altering the efficiency of absorption and the rate of tissue metabolism. Malnutrition, depressed serum zinc levels, and intestinal nutrient malabsorption have been found in AIDS patients. The above findings suggest that dietary manipulations might diminish the immune defects in HIV infection and enhance resistance to opportunistic infections. However, dietary alterations in immune defects are generally not well quantified and may be small relative to the magnitude of the defects observed in AIDS patients. Because conflicting or adverse effects have been reported for some nutrients, recommendations for dietary supplementation in HIV-infected individuals are premature and possibly hazardous. Further studies are much needed to relate dietary nutrient intakes to clinical outcomes.Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes 02/1989; 2(3):235-47.
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ABSTRACT: The nature of body-composition changes in HIV-associated weight loss is unclear. We examined the relation between the initial percentage of body fat and the composition of weight loss in men and women with HIV infection. HIV-positive adults were seen at semiannual clinic visits, at which time weight, fat, and fat-free mass were determined. The unit of analysis was the person-interval. Five hundred fifty-one persons contributed 2266 intervals of data, of which 311 (14%) were intervals in which weight loss was >/= 5% of initial (start of interval) weight. Of these, 208 (67%) intervals met the criteria for analysis (123 from men and 85 from women). Loss of fat-free mass was dependent on the initial percentage of body fat in the men with < 32% body fat. A plot of the initial percentage of body fat compared with loss of fat-free mass (kg) suggested a nonlinear relation over the range of body fat examined. There was no clear relation between the initial percentage of body fat and loss of fat-free mass in the women. In men with HIV-associated weight loss, the weight lost as fat-free mass depends on the initial percentage of body fat at low levels of body fat but appears to be independent of initial percentage of body fat at high levels of body fat. In women with HIV-associated weight loss who have normal-to-high body fat stores, loss of fat-free mass is independent of the initial percentage of body fat.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/2003; 76(6):1428-34. · 6.92 Impact Factor