CBL enhances breast tumor formation by inhibiting tumor suppressive activity of TGF-β signaling.
ABSTRACT Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (CBL) protein family functions as multifunctional adaptor proteins and E3 ubiquitin ligases that are implicated as regulators of signaling in various cell types. Recent discovery revealed mutations of proto-oncogenic CBL in the linker region and RING finger domain in human acute myeloid neoplasm, and these transforming mutations induced carcinogenesis. However, the adaptor function of CBL mediated signaling pathway during tumorigenesis has not been well characterized. Here, we show that CBL is highly expressed in breast cancer cells and significantly inhibits transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) tumor suppressive activity. Knockdown of CBL expression resulted in the increased expression of TGF-β target genes, PAI-I and CDK inhibitors such as p15(INK4b) and p21(Cip1). Furthermore, we demonstrate that CBL is frequently overexpressed in human breast cancer tissues, and the loss of CBL decreases the tumorigenic activity of breast cancer cells in vivo. CBL directly binds to Smad3 through its proline-rich motif, thereby preventing Smad3 from interacting with Smad4 and blocking nuclear translocation of Smad3. CBL-b, one of CBL protein family, also interacted with Smad3 and knockdown of both CBL and CBL-b further enhanced TGF-β transcriptional activity. Our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which oncogenic CBL can block TGF-β tumor suppressor activity.Oncogene advance online publication, 6 February 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.18.
- SourceAvailable from: Jin Muk Kang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Homozygous deletion is a frequent mutational mechanism of silencing tumor suppressor genes in cancer. Therefore, homozygous deletions have been analyzed for identification of tumor suppressor genes that can be utilized as biomarkers or therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. In this study, to elucidate potential tumor suppressor genes involved in gastric cancer (GC), we analyzed the entire set of large homozygous deletions in six human GC cell lines through genome- and transcriptome-wide approaches. We identified 51 genes in homozygous deletion regions of chromosomes and confirmed the deletion frequency in tumor tissues of 219 GC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. We evaluated the effect of homozygous deletions on the mRNA level and found significantly affected genes in chromosome bands 9p21, 3p22, 5p14, and 6q15. Among the genes in 9p21, we investigated the potential tumor suppressive effect of KLHL9. We demonstrated that ectopic expression of KLHL9 inhibited cell proliferation and tumor formation in KLHL9-deficient SNU-16 cell line. In addition, we observed that homozygous focal deletions generated truncated transcripts of TGFBR2, CTNNA1, and STXBP5. Ectopic expression of two kinds of TGFBR2-reverse GADL1 fusion genes suppressed TGF-β signaling, which may lead to the loss of sensitivity to TGF-β tumor suppressive activity. In conclusion, our findings suggest that novel tumor suppressor genes that are aberrantly expressed through homozygous deletions may play important roles in gastric tumorigenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 12/2014; 54(3). DOI:10.1002/gcc.22226 · 3.84 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Members of the TGFβ superfamily are known to exert a myriad of physiologic and pathologic growth controlling influences on mammary development and oncogenesis. In epithelial cells, TGFβ signaling inhibits cell growth through cytostatic and pro-apoptotic activities but can also induce cancer cell EMT and, thus, has a dichotomous role in breast cancer biology. Mechanisms governing this switch are the subject of active investigation. Smad3 is a critical intracellular mediator of TGFβ signaling regulated through phosphorylation by the TGFβ receptor complex at the C terminus. Smad3 is also a substrate for several other kinases that phosphorylate additional sites within the Smad protein. This discovery has expanded the understanding of the significance and complexity of TGFβ signaling through Smads. This review highlights recent advances revealing the critical role of phospho-specific Smad3 in malignancy and illustrates the potential prognostic and therapeutic impact of Smad3 phospho-isoforms in breast cancer.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 07/2012; 11(13):2443-51. DOI:10.4161/cc.20546 · 5.01 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a potent antiproliferative factor in multiple types of cells. Deregulation of TGF-β signaling is associated with the development of many cancers, including leukemia, though the molecular mechanisms are largely unclear. Here, we show that Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl), a known proto-oncogene encoding an ubiquitin E3 ligase, promotes TGF-β signaling by neddylating and stabilizing the type II receptor (TβRII). Knockout of c-Cbl decreases the TβRII protein level and desensitizes hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells to TGF-β stimulation, while c-Cbl overexpression stabilizes TβRII and sensitizes leukemia cells to TGF-β. c-Cbl conjugates neural precursor cell-expressed, developmentally downregulated 8 (NEDD8), a ubiquitin-like protein, to TβRII at Lys556 and Lys567. Neddylation of TβRII promotes its endocytosis to EEA1-positive early endosomes while preventing its endocytosis to caveolin-positive compartments, therefore inhibiting TβRII ubiquitination and degradation. We have also identified a neddylation-activity-defective c-Cbl mutation from leukemia patients, implying a link between aberrant TβRII neddylation and leukemia development.Molecular cell 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2012.12.002 · 14.46 Impact Factor