Relationship among plasma adipokines, insulin and androgens level as well as biochemical glycemic and lipidemic markers with incidence of PCOS in women with normal BMI.
ABSTRACT Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder in women. Omentin-1 and vaspin are secretary adipokines that are produced by the visceral adipose tissue. These levels change in obese women with PCOS. The aim of this study is to investigate whether omentin and vaspin levels change in nonobese PCOS subjects. This study is a cross-sectional case control study in which 39 women with PCOS were picked out for this study. The inclusion criteria were based on the Rotterdam 2003 diagnostic criteria. The control group consisted of 39 women with normal pelvic sonographic reports having regular menstruation and showing no signs of infertility. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride (TG), Chol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), insulin, testosterone, omentin and vaspin were measured by the enzymatic methods. The differences within these groups were calculated by the un-paired t-test and the Mann-Whitney test. The results from this study show a significant increase in the amount of insulin, testosterone, homeostasis model assessments for insulin resistance, TG and lower HDL in the patient group. No significant differences were seen in omentin, vaspin, FPG, Cho, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, Cr and homeostasis model assessments for B cell function levels between groups. Results show that PCOS is not a determinant of decreased omentin and vaspin plasma levels and those high androgen level and insulin resistances are warning signs of PCOS.
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ABSTRACT: It is now clear that PCOS is often associated with profound insulin resistance as well as with defects in insulin secretion. These abnormalities, together with obesity, explain the substantially increased prevalence of glucose intolerance in PCOS. Moreover, since PCOS is an extremely common disorder, PCOS-related insulin resistance is an important cause of NIDDM in women (Table 3). The insulin resistance in at least 50% of PCOS women appears to be related to excessive serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. A factor extrinsic to the insulin receptor, presumably a serine/threonine kinase, causes this abnormality and is an example of an important new mechanism for human insulin resistance related to factors controlling insulin receptor signaling. Serine phosphorylation appears to modulate the activity of the key regulatory enzyme of androgen biosynthesis, P450c17. It is thus possible that a single defect produces both the insulin resistance and the hyperandrogenism in some PCOS women (Fig. 19). Recent studies strongly suggest that insulin is acting through its own receptor (rather than the IGF-I receptor) in PCOS to augment not only ovarian and adrenal steroidogenesis but also pituitary LH release. Indeed, the defect in insulin action appears to be selective, affecting glucose metabolism but not cell growth. Since PCOS usually has a menarchal age of onset, this makes it a particularly appropriate disorder in which to examine the ontogeny of defects in carbohydrate metabolism and for ascertaining large three-generation kindreds for positional cloning studies to identify NIDDM genes. Although the presence of lipid abnormalities, dysfibrinolysis, and insulin resistance would be predicted to place PCOS women at high risk for cardiovascular disease, appropriate prospective studies are necessary to directly assess this.Endocrine Reviews 01/1998; 18(6):774-800. · 14.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as a model of insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism, our specific aim was to assess the effect of Metformin on lipoproteins, sex hormones, gonadotropins, and blood pressure in 26 women with PCOS who were studied at baseline, received Metformin 1.5 g/d for 8 weeks, and were then restudied. None of the women had normal menstrual cycles, 100% had multiple subcapsular follicules by pelvic ultrasound, 90% were hirsute, and 85% had high free testosterone. Comparing post-Metformin versus baseline levels, the Quetelet Index (QI) decreased 1.5% (P = .04) and the waist to hip ratio (WHR) decreased 2.8% (P = .003). After covariance adjusting for changes in the QI and WHR, on Metformin the area under the insulin curve (IA) during oral glucose tolerance testing decreased 35% (P = .04), and the insulin area to glucose area ratio decreased 31% (P = .03). On Metformin, covariance-adjusted systolic blood pressure (SBP) decreased (P = .04) and apo A-1 increased (P = .05). On Metformin, with improvement in insulin sensitivity, there were sharp reductions in covariance-adjusted luteinizing hormone ([LH] P = .0007), total testosterone ([T] P = .0004), free T (P = .0001), androstenedione (P = .002), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate ([DHEAS] P = .006), and the free androgen index ([FAI] P = .0005), with increments in follicle-stimulating hormone ([FSH] P = .04) and sex hormone-binding globulin ([SHBG] P = .04).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Metabolism 06/1994; 43(5):647-54. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), based on plasma levels of fasting glucose and insulin, has been widely validated and applied for quantifying insulin resistance and beta-cell function. However, prospective data regarding its relation to diabetes risk in ethnically diverse populations are limited. Among 82,069 women who were aged 50-79 years, free of cardiovascular disease or diabetes, and participating in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, we conducted a nested case-control study to prospectively examine the relations of HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA-B) with diabetes risk. During a median follow-up period of 5.9 years, 1,584 diabetic patients were matched with 2,198 control subjects by age, ethnicity, clinical center, time of blood draw, and follow-up time. Baseline levels of fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR were each significantly higher among case compared with control subjects, while HOMA-B was lower (all P values <0.0001). After adjustment for matching factors and diabetes risk factors, all four markers were significantly associated with diabetes risk; the estimated relative risks per SD increment were 3.54 (95% CI 3.02-4.13) for fasting glucose, 2.25 (1.99-2.54) for fasting insulin, 3.40 (2.95-3.92) for HOMA-IR, and 0.57 (0.51-0.63) for HOMA-B. While no statistically significant multiplicative interactions were observed between these markers and ethnicity, the associations of both HOMA-IR and HOMA-B with diabetes risk remained significant and robust in each ethnic group, including whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians/Pacific Islanders. When evaluated jointly, the relations of HOMA-IR and HOMA-B with diabetes risk appeared to be independent and additive. HOMA-IR was more strongly associated with an increased risk than were other markers after we excluded those with fasting glucose > or = 126 mg/dl at baseline. High HOMA-IR and low HOMA-B were independently and consistently associated with an increased diabetes risk in a multiethnic cohort of U.S. postmenopausal women. These data suggest the value of HOMA indexes for diabetes risk in epidemiologic studies.Diabetes care 08/2007; 30(7):1747-52. · 7.74 Impact Factor