MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by targeting the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of messenger RNAs. Since the discovery of the first miRNA in Caenorhabditis elegans, important regulatory roles for miRNAs in many key biological processes including development, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis of many organisms have been described. Hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in various multicellular organisms and many are evolutionarily conserved. Schistosomes are multi-cellular eukaryotes with a complex life-cycle that require genes to be expressed and regulated precisely. Recently, miRNAs have been identified in two major schistosome species, Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni. These miRNAs are likely to play critical roles in schistosome development and gene regulation. Here, we review recent studies on schistosome miRNAs and discuss the potential roles of miRNAs in schistosome development and gene regulation. We also summarize the current status for targeting miRNAs and the potential of this approach for therapy against schistosomiasis.
"Endogenous-small interfering (Endo-siRNAs), miRNAs, and Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNAs) are three main components of sncRNAs (Kim, 2005). Using protocols similar to the conventional transcriptomic researches, which can be outlined as RNA isolation, library construction, and sequencing (Cheng and Jin, 2012), vast numbers of schistosomal miRNAs and endo-siRNAs have been successfully detected in S. mansoni (Copeland et al., 2009; de Souza Gomes et al., 2011; Simões et al., 2011) and S. japonicum (Xue et al., 2008; Copeland et al., 2009; Hao et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2010b; Cai et al., 2011). What’s more, recently Cai et al. (2012) adopted a totally novel method, i.e., the immunoprecipitation of SjAgo2, a key factor in sncRNAs biogenesis with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to identify and characterize the associated small RNAs. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis, caused by dioecious flatworms in the genus Schistosoma, is torturing people from many developing countries nowadays and frequently leads to severe morbidity and mortality of the patients. Praziquantel based chemotherapy and morbidity control for this disease adopted currently necessitate viable and efficient diagnostic technologies. Fortunately, those "-omics" researches, which rely on high-throughput experimental technologies to produce massive amounts of informative data, have substantially contributed to the exploitation and innovation of diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis. In its first section, this review provides a concise conclusion on the progresses pertaining to schistosomal "-omics" researches to date, followed by a comprehensive section on the diagnostic methods of schistosomiasis, especially those innovative ones based on the detection of antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, and metabolites with a focus on those achievements inspired by "-omics" researches. Finally, suggestions about the design of future diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis are proposed, in order to better harness those data produced by "-omics" studies.
Frontiers in Microbiology 06/2014; 5:313. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00313 · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) as small non-coding RNAs play important roles in many biological processes such as development, cell signaling and immune response. Small RNA deep sequencing technology provided an opportunity for a thorough survey of miRNAs in a global key pest Plutella xylostella as well as comparative analysis of miRNA expression profile of the insect in association with parasitization by Diadegma semiclausum. Combining the deep sequencing data and bioinformatics, 235 miRNAs were identified from P. xylostella. Differential expression of host cellular miRNAs in response to parasitism was examined by making small RNA libraries from parasitized and naive second instar larvae of P. xylostella. Bantam, miR-276*, miR-10, miR-31 and miR-184 were detected as five most abundant miRNAs in both libraries and 96 miRNAs were identified that were differentially expressed after parasitization. Bantam*, miR-184 and miR-281* were significantly down-regulated and two miRNAs miR-279b and miR-2944b* were highly induced in parasitized larvae. Interestingly, high copy numbers and differential expression of several miRNA passenger strands (miRNA*) suggest their potential roles in host-parasitoid interaction. In conclusion, expression profiling of miRNAs provided insights into their possible involvement in insect immune response to parasitism and offer an important resource for further studies.
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