Article

Unintentional fall injuries among US children: a study based on the National Emergency Department Sample.

a The Ohio State University College of Medicine , Columbus , OH , USA.
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion (Impact Factor: 0.67). 02/2012; DOI: 10.1080/17457300.2012.656316
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study uses national data to describe the patterns and aetiologies for childhood falls in a high-income country, the United States. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data for children aged 0-17 years from the 2007 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS). Sample weights provided by NEDS were used to make national estimates. We estimated that in 2007 there were more than 2.3 million paediatric fall-related emergency department (ED) visits at a rate of 3217 visits per 100,000 children. Over 95% of those seen for fall injuries were treated and released. In addition, government sources made payments for just under one-third of these visits. Of those ED visits that result in hospitalisation, we found marked age patterns in bodily location of injury. The impact of fall-related injuries on EDs in the US is substantial within the paediatric population. The use of national level ED data shows age and gender patterns in paediatric fall injury not readily apparent in previous studies. There are patterns in external cause of injury and bodily location of injury that can be used to guide age specific prevention interventions.

0 Followers
 · 
130 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the widespread promotion of safety standards no epidemiological studies have adequately evaluated their effectiveness in preventing injury in falls from playground equipment. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the height and surfacing requirements of the New Zealand standard for playgrounds and playground equipment. Early childhood education centres and schools in two major cities in the South Island of New Zealand. Data were collected on 300 children aged 14 years or less who had fallen from playground equipment. Of these, 110 (cases) had sustained injury and received medical attention, while 190 (controls) had not sustained injury requiring medical attention. Logistic regression models fitted to the data indicated that the risk of injury being sustained in a fall was increased if the equipment failed to comply with the maximum fall height (odds ratio (OR) = 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7 to 13.1), surfacing (OR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.0 to 5.0), or safe fall height (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.1 to 4.0) requirements. Falls from heights in excess of 1.5 metres increased the risk of injury 4.1 times that of falls from 1.5 metres or less and it was estimated that a 45% reduction in children attending emergency departments could be achieved if the maximum fall height was lowered to 1.5 metres. Although the height and surfacing requirements of the New Zealand standard are effective in preventing injury in falls from playground equipment, consideration should be given to lowering the maximum permissible fall height to 1.5 metres.
    Injury Prevention 07/1996; 2(2):98-104. DOI:10.1136/ip.2.2.98 · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Injuries to infant children are an important health concern, yet there are few population-based analyses from which to develop prevention initiatives. This study describes the external causes, natures, and disposition from an emergency department of infants with injuries for a geographically distinct population in Eastern Ontario. Epidemiologic analysis of emergency-based surveillance data (1994-2000) for infants (<12 months old) from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program. A total of 990 cases of injury to infants were identified, of which 217 (21.9%) required significant medical intervention. Leading causes of injury were falls (605/990; 61.1%), ingestion injuries (65/990; 6.6%), and burns (56/990; 5.7%). Common types of falls experienced were: from furniture (229/605; 37.9%), being dropped (92/605; 15.2%), in car seats (73/605; 12.1%), down stairs (63/605; 10.4%), or in a child walker (42/605; 6.9%). The observed patterns of injury changed according to the ages of the children. Vignettes are used to illustrate recurrent injury patterns (falls, physical vulnerability, burns and ingestions, equipment injuries). The results indicate the relative importance of several external causes of injury and how these vary by age group. This population-based information is also useful in establishing rational priorities for prevention, and the targeting of interventions toward responsible authorities.
    PEDIATRICS 04/2003; 111(4 Pt 1):e365-70. DOI:10.1542/peds.111.4.e365 · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High-level falls are associated with multiple injuries and are often difficult to evaluate. Age may be an important factor determining the anatomic distribution and severity of injuries and outcome. There is little work published on this subject. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of age on the incidence and severity of specific organ injuries and survival outcome after high-level falls. This was a trauma registry study that included all victims of high-level falls (>15 feet) admitted to a Level I academic trauma center. The incidence of severe trauma (Injury Severity Score > 15), severe body area trauma (head, chest, abdomen, and extremities) with Abbreviated Injury Scale score > 3, specific organ injuries (spine, thoracic aorta, solid and hollow viscus intra-abdominal injuries, and pelvic and lower extremity fractures), and mortality were compared in four age groups: < or =14 years, 15 to 55 years, 56 to 65 years, and >65 years. The study included 1,613 patients. There were 128 patients (7.9%) in the age group < or =14 years, 1,389 (86.1%) in the age group 15 to 55 years, 59 (3.7%) in the age group 56 to 65 years, and 37 (2.3%) in the age group >65 years. The mortality ranged from 5.5% in the pediatric group to 24.3% in the elderly group (p = 0.02). Significantly more patients in the elderly group had an Injury Severity Score > 15 than in the pediatric group (45.2% vs. 15.6%, p = 0.001). The overall incidence of spinal fractures was 24.1% (392 cases) and increased significantly after the age of 15 years. Elderly patients were significantly more likely than pediatric patients to suffer pelvic fractures (21.6% vs. 1.6%, p = 0.0001) and more likely to have fractures of the femur (18.9% vs. 3.9%, p = 0.006). The nature of intracranial injuries and the incidence of solid and hollow viscus injuries were similar in all age groups. Age is an important variable in determining the nature and severity of injuries after high-level falls. Spinal injuries are very common in all age groups older than 14 years.
    The Journal of trauma 02/2005; 58(2):342-5. DOI:10.1097/01.TA.0000135161.44100.D8 · 2.96 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
2 Downloads
Available from
Mar 23, 2015