We report on a consanguineous couple with two affected sons who presented with primary microcephaly and moderate to severe intellectual disabilities. A SNP array uncovered two overlapping regions of copy-neutral absence of heterozygosity (AOH) in both sibs. This led to sequencing of WDR62, a gene that codes for a spindle pole protein recently identified as a cause of primary microcephaly. A homozygous missense mutation in WDR62, p.E400K, was found in both boys and segregated with the condition in this family. WDR62 is one of seven genes responsible for autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH), and appears to be one of the most frequently involved in MCPH following ASPM. Studies of ASPM and WDR62 should perhaps be pursued in all cases of primary microcephaly with or without gross brain malformations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a rare hereditary neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a marked reduction in brain size and intellectual disability. MCPH is genetically heterogeneous and can exhibit additional clinical features that overlap with related disorders including Seckel syndrome, Meier-Gorlin syndrome, and microcephalic osteodysplastic dwarfism. In this review, we discuss the key proteins mutated in MCPH. To date, MCPH-causing mutations have been identified in twelve different genes, many of which encode proteins that are involved in cell cycle regulation or are present at the centrosome, an organelle crucial for mitotic spindle assembly and cell division. We highlight recent findings on MCPH proteins with regard to their role in cell cycle progression, centrosome function, and early brain development.
BioMed Research International 12/2014; 2014:547986. DOI:10.1155/2014/547986 · 3.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a heterogeneous disorder which mainly affects neurodevelopment. Generally, MCPH patients exhibit mild brain structural anomalies and simplified cerebral cortex, but few recently identified genes are associated with severe brain malformations. Here, we report a five generation Pakistani family with three affected individuals presenting primary microcephaly, intellectual disability, schizencephaly and hypoplasia of corpus callosum. The comparison of available clinical information led to candidate gene mapping and sequencing of WD repeat domain 62 (WDR62) gene which is mostly associated with severe brain malformations. A homozygous deletion mutation c.1143delA was detected in exon 9 of WDR62 gene, in all affected individuals, which resulted in frameshift and protein truncation (p.H381PfsX48). This study supports the frequent involvement of WDR62 in patients with gross brain malformations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a rare neurodevelopmental disease with severe microcephaly at birth due to a pronounced reduction in brain volume and intellectual disability. Biallelic mutations in the WD repeat-containing protein 62 gene WDR62 are the genetic cause of MCPH2. However, the exact underlying pathomechanism of MCPH2 remains to be clarified.Methods/results: We characterized the clinical, radiological, and cellular features that add to the human MCPH2 phenotype. Exome sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing in a German family with two affected daughters with primary microcephaly revealed in the index patient the compound heterozygous mutations c.1313G>A (p.R438H) / c.2864-2867delACAG (p.D955Afs*112) of WDR62, the second of which is novel. Radiological examination displayed small frontal lobes, corpus callosum hypoplasia, simplified hippocampal gyration, and cerebellar hypoplasia. We investigated the cellular phenotype in patient-derived lymphoblastoid cells and compared it with that of healthy female controls. WDR62 expression in the patient's immortalized lymphocytes was deranged, and mitotic spindle defects as well as abnormal centrosomal protein localization were apparent.
We propose that a disruption of centrosome integrity and/or spindle organization may play an important role in the development of microcephaly in MCPH2.
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