In this study, we show that low density lipoproteins (LDL) from human blood plasma which was oxidized by animal C-15 lipoxygenase is taken up by cultivated human macrophages with the same effectiveness as with non-oxidized (native) LDL. At the same time malonyldialdehyde-modified LDL is captured by cultivated macrophages very actively. Based on differences in catabolism of LDL with various levels of primary and secondary products of free-radical oxidation, it was offered to discriminate between the oxidized LDL itself (lipohydroperoxide-rich LDL) and the LDL that was chemically modified by free-radical oxidation secondary products of aldehyde nature. In this respect, aldehyde-modified but not oxidized (lipohydroperoxide-containing) LDL is atherogenic.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excessive uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein plays a role in the onset of atherosclerosis. Lipid-associated antioxidants, the most abundant of which is tocopherol (vitamin E), are therefore believed to have anti-atherogenic properties. By contrast, hydroperoxides enhance the peroxidation of low density lipoprotein. We demonstrate that none of these compounds markedly affect the maximal rate of oxidation of low density lipoprotein, whereas the lag preceding rapid oxidation is prolonged by tocopherol but shortened by hydroperoxides. The corresponding 'prolongation' and 'shortening' can be compensated by each other in low density lipoprotein preparations enriched with both these compounds. The dependence of the balance between the effects of tocopherol and hydroperoxides on the copper concentration indicates that the antioxidative effect of vitamin E increases with the oxidative stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutaraldehyde treatment of (125)I-labeled low density lipoprotein ((125)I-native-LDL) produced a modified LDL ((125)I-glut-LDL) with a molecular weight of 10 x 10(6) or more. Malondialdehyde treatment of (125)I-native-LDL produced a product ((125)I-MDA-LDL) with a molecular weight not appreciably different from that of the original lipoprotein. However, the electrophoretic mobility of MDA-LDL indicated a more negative charge than native-LDL. (125)I-MDA-LDL was degraded by two processes: a high-affinity saturable process with maximal velocity at 10-15 mug of protein per ml and a slower, nonsaturable process. The degradation of (125)I-MDA-LDL was readily inhibited by increasing concentrations of nonradioactive MDA-LDL but was not inhibited by acetylated LDL or native-LDL even at concentrations as high as 1600 mug of protein per ml. After exposure of native-LDL to blood platelet aggregation and release in vitro, 1.73 +/- 0.19 nmol of malondialdehyde per mg of LDL protein was bound to the platelet-modified-LDL. No detectable malondialdehyde was recovered from native-LDL that had been treated identically except that the platelets were omitted from the reaction mixture. After incubation with glut-LDL, MDA-LDL, or platelet-modified-LDL for 3 days, human monocyte-macrophages showed a dramatic increase in cholesteryl ester content whereas the cholesteryl ester content of cells incubated with the same concentration of native-LDL did not. Based on these experiments we propose that modification of native-LDL may be a prerequisite to the accumulation of cholesteryl esters within the cells of the atherosclerotic reaction. We further hypothesize that one modification of LDL in vivo may result from malondialdehyde which is released from blood platelets or is produced by lipid peroxidation at the site of arterial injury.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/1980; 77(4):2214-8. DOI:10.1073/pnas.77.4.2214 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The basic differences between sialylated (sialic acid rich) and desialylated (sialic acid poor) human low density lipoproteins (LDL) are not fully defined. It is not known whether there are any differences in the LDL composition of coronary atherosclerosis patients and healthy individuals.
Sialylated (45 to 94% of total LDL) and desialylated (6 to 55%) LDL were separated by affinity chromatography on Ricinus communis agglutinin-agarose, and their chemical composition and physical properties were examined.
Sialic acid contents in sialylated LDL fractions of healthy subjects and patients were the same and 1.5 to 3-fold higher than in desialylated LDL. Desialylated LDL had smaller sizes and greater electrophoretic mobility than sialylated ones. Desialylated, but not sialylated LDL, induced 1.5- to 4-fold accumulation of neutral lipids in human aortic smooth muscle cells and human blood monocytes. Subfractions of desialylated LDL containing lower amount of sialic acid revealed higher ability to accumulate lipids in cultured cells. Desialylated LDL contained lower amounts of cholesteryl esters, free cholesterol and triglycerides as compared with sialylated LDL. On the other hand, concentration of di-, monoglycerides and free fatty acids in desialylated LDL was 2 to 3-fold higher than in sialylated lipoproteins. Desialylated LDL fraction was characterized by lower levels of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylethanolamine, but higher content of lysophosphatidylcholine. Freshly isolated sialylated and desialylated LDL contained equal amounts of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, but oxidation of desialylated LDL was more pronounced in presence of Cu(2+)-ions. Desialylated LDL had higher level of oxysterols and lower amounts of vitamin A and E. Content of free amino groups of lysine in desialylated LDL of patients was 2-fold lower than in sialylated LDL. This difference was partially due to masking of amino groups caused by conformational change in the tertiary structure of apolipoprotein, partially to chemical modification of amino groups. When subfractionated by density gradient ultracentrifugation, desialylated LDL was represented by higher density particles than sialylated LDL. Sialic acid content in desialylated LDL subfractions decreased with rise of lipoprotein density. Higher density desialylated LDL and in less extent sialylated LDL contained smaller amounts of free and esterified cholesterol and phospholipids. Only the densest subfractions of desialylated LDL from healthy subjects caused intracellular lipid accumulation. Ability of patients' desialylated LDL to accumulate cholesterol in cells increased with particle density.
Extensive biochemical and biophysical analysis performed in this study shows that desialylated LDL differ from these sialylated LDL in many respects. The LDL of coronary atherosclerosis patients differ from those in healthy individuals in several parameters.
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