Bioavailability of orally administered water-dispersible hesperetin and its effect on peripheral vasodilatation in human subjects: implication of endothelial functions of plasma conjugated metabolites.
ABSTRACT Hesperetin is an aglycone of citrus flavonoids and is expected to exert a vasodilatation effect in vivo. We developed water-dispersible hesperetin by the process of micronization to enhance the bioavailability of hesperetin. This study aimed to assess the effect of this process on the bioavailability of hesperetin and to estimate its efficiency on vasodilatation-related functions using endothelial cells in vitro and a human volunteer study at a single dose in vivo. We found that water-dispersible hesperetin was absorbed rapidly, with its maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) being 10.2 ± 1.2 μM, and that the time to reach C(max), which is within 1 h if 150 mg of this preparation was orally administered in humans. LC-MS analyses of the plasma at C(max) demonstrated that hesperetin accumulated in the plasma as hesperetin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide (Hp7GA), hesperetin 3'-O-β-D-glucuronide (Hp3'GA) and hesperetin sulfate exclusively. Similar to hesperetin, Hp7GA enhanced nitric oxide (NO) release by inhibiting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH oxidase) activity in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell culture system, indicating that plasma hesperetin metabolites can improve vasodilatation in the vascular system. A volunteer study using women with cold sensitivity showed that a single dose of water-dispersible hesperetin was effective on peripheral vasodilatation.These results strongly suggest that rapid accumulation with higher plasma concentration enables hesperetin to exert a potential vasodilatation effect by the endothelial action of its plasma metabolites. Water-dispersible hesperetin may be useful to improve the health effect of dietary hesperetin.
- SourceAvailable from: Rie Mukai[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The physiological functions and bioavailability of flavonoids have been widely investigated since their bioactivities were identified about 80 years ago. Quercetin is a typical flavonoid ubiquitously contained in vegetables and fruits with several biological effects demonstrated in vitro and in vivo including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antidiabetic activities. After the ingestion of vegetables and fruits, quercetin glycosides are metabolized, absorbed, and circulated as types of conjugates in the blood. Thereafter, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide (Q3GA), a major metabolite of quercetin, is distributed throughout the body where it may exert beneficial functions in target tissues. Hydrophilic Q3GA has been found to be deconjugated into hydrophobic quercetin aglycone at injured sites which, in turn, may improve the pathological conditions. This review presents updated information on the biological aspects and mechanisms of action of quercetin and its related polyphenols. In particular, new insights into their beneficial health effects on the brain, blood vessels, muscle, and intestine will be discussed.Food & Function 03/2015; 6(5). DOI:10.1039/c4fo01178c · 2.91 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is substantial interest in the role of plant secondary metabolites as protective dietary agents. In particular, the involvement of flavonoids and related compounds has become a major topic in human nutrition research. Evidence from epidemiological and human intervention studies is emerging regarding the protective effects of various (poly)phenol-rich foods against several chronic diseases, including neurodegeneration, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, the use of HPLC-MS for the analysis of flavonoids and related compounds in foods and biological samples has significantly enhanced our understanding of (poly)phenol bioavailability. These advancements have also led to improvements in the available food composition and metabolomic databases, and consequently in the development of biomarkers of (poly)phenol intake to use in epidemiological studies. Efforts to create adequate standardised materials and well-matched controls to use in randomised controlled trials have also improved the quality of the available data. In vitro investigations using physiologically achievable concentrations of (poly)phenol metabolites and catabolites with appropriate model test systems have provided new and interesting insights on potential mechanisms of actions. This article will summarise recent findings on the bioavailability and biological activity of (poly)phenols, focusing on the epidemiological and clinical evidence of beneficial effects of flavonoids and related compounds on urinary tract infections, cognitive function and age-related cognitive decline, cancer and cardiovascular disease.Archive für Toxikologie 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00204-014-1330-7 · 5.08 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A proper diet is one of major factors contributing to good health and is directly related to general condition of the organism. Phenolic compounds are abundant in foods and beverages (fresh and processed fruits and vegetables, leguminous plants, cereals, herbs, spices, tea, coffee, wine, beer) and their pleiotropic biological activities result in numerous health beneficial effects. On the other hand, high reactivity and very large diversity in terms of structure and molecular weight renders polyphenols one of the most difficult groups of compounds to investigate, as evidenced by ambiguous and sometimes contradictory results of many studies. Furthermore, phenolics undergo metabolic transformations which significantly change their biological activities. Here we discuss some aspects of metabolism and absorption of phenolic compounds. On the basis of information reported in the literature as well as in summaries of clinical trials and patent applications, we also give an overview of strategies for enhancing their bioavailability.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 12/2013; DOI:10.1021/jf404439b · 3.11 Impact Factor