HIV Medications: An Update and Review of Metabolic Complications

Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, 1321 Walker Building, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.
Nutrition in Clinical Practice (Impact Factor: 2.4). 02/2012; 27(1):51-64. DOI: 10.1177/0884533611431985
Source: PubMed


In the past 30 years, medical advances for those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have reduced morbidity and mortality to extend life with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and with the continued development of new therapies. With this success, HIV is being managed chronically, but other health issues of an aging HIV-infected population have emerged. The challenges of treating HIV infection have shifted from AIDS-related mortality improvements to drug-induced disease from HAART, including cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, and bone health. Prolonged use of antiretroviral therapy maintaining immune restoration appears to represent additional, ongoing risk factors for the development of these metabolic complications. These drug-related problems continue to challenge patients and clinicians in the management of HIV disease, as well as ongoing research for drug development improvements to minimize these risks. These health risks imposed by HAART must be vigilantly monitored and aggressively addressed to improve the overall health of those treated for HIV infection.

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Available from: Elizabeth Kelly Hester, Sep 15, 2015
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    • "The current standard of care is combinatorial antiretroviral therapy which consists of a cocktail of small molecule drugs that target multiple stages of viral replication. Although significantly improving patient survival and quality of life, combinatorial antiretroviral therapy is a lifelong, expensive treatment that is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, lipodystrophy, and neurological complications among other clinical sequelae.2,3,4,5,6 Furthermore, with the emergence of drug-resistant viral mutants and the persistence of latent viral reservoirs, an alternative and more comprehensive approach to conventional HIV therapy is needed. "
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    • "Such challenges include acute infection, decline of immune function, lifelong adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), the potential for developing opportunistic infections, and death. We will not describe these challenges further as they have been extensively covered elsewhere (Hester, 2012; Kumari & Singh, 2012; Sax, Cohen, & Kuritzkes, 2011). Increasing interest, however, has focused on life challenges that are not associated with HIV disease itself but can have a powerful impact on the course of the disease. "
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