Fate of large structural allograft for treatment of severe uncontained glenoid bone deficiency
ABSTRACT Structural allografts have been used for management of large defects of the glenoid. We describe a surgical technique for graft preparation and the radiographic and clinical results of a series of patients using this technique.
In 19 consecutive patients, a polymethyl methacrylate mold was used to shape a single graft from a fresh-frozen femoral head to press fit within the glenoid defect. We evaluated the clinical and radiographic results with a minimum 2-year follow-up or until revision to another total shoulder replacement.
Six patients showed more than 50% resorption of the graft. Four of these six patients also had less than 50% graft incorporation, and these findings were associated with a less favorable clinical outcome. In 3 of 6 cases in which poly-L-lactic acid bioresorbable screws were used, a significant giant cell reaction was noted at the time of revision surgery. Seven of nine patients with metal screw fixation had bent, broken, or worn screws because of graft collapse and contact with the prosthetic humeral head. Four of the five revision cases that were converted to a reverse total shoulder replacement had sufficient bone incorporation and volume of bone to allow for secure glenoid and screw fixation.
The surgical technique described is useful in creation of a well-fitting graft. The amount of bone resorption and bone incorporation and clinical outcome have wide variability. In those cases where revision was performed with another total shoulder replacement, there was sufficient bone incorporation and sufficient bone mass to allow component fixation.
Article: Bone loss in anterior instability.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bone loss is commonly observed in shoulders with anterior instability. The Latarjet procedure is commonly performed when a glenoid bony defect exists that is greater than 25 % of the glenoid width or when the risk of recurrent instability is higher (i.e., collision-sport athletes). Hill-Sachs lesions need to be assessed as well. For the purpose of assessing the bipolar lesions, the glenoid track concept is useful. A Hill-Sachs lesion that is located more medially than the medial margin of the glenoid track is defined as an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion. A potential treatment for such a condition is remplissage, but this procedure also decreases range of motion. Thus, its application in overhead athletes needs to be carefully considered.Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine 01/2013; 6(1). DOI:10.1007/s12178-012-9154-7
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ABSTRACT: Glenoid bone deficiency and eccentric posterior wear are difficult problems faced by shoulder arthroplasty surgeons. Numerous options and techniques exist for addressing these issues. Hemiarthroplasty with concentric glenoid reaming may be a viable alternative in motivated patients in whom glenoid component failure is a concern. Total shoulder arthroplasty has been shown to provide durable pain relief and excellent function in patients, and numerous methods and techniques can assist in addressing bone loss and eccentric wear. However, the ideal amount of version correction in cases of severe retroversion has not yet been established. Asymmetric reaming is a commonly used technique to address glenoid version, but correction of severe retroversion may compromise bone stock and component fixation. Bone grafting is a technically demanding alternative for uncontained defects and has mixed clinical results. Specialized glenoid implants with posterior augmentation have been created to assist the surgeon in correcting glenoid version without compromising bone stock, but clinical data on these implants are still pending. Custom implants or instruments based on each patient's unique glenoid anatomy may hold promise. In elderly, sedentary patients in whom bone stock and soft-tissue balance are concerns, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty may be less technically demanding while still providing satisfactory pain relief and functional improvements.Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 06/2013; 22(9). DOI:10.1016/j.jse.2013.04.014 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Revision arthroplasty for failed post-traumatic humeral head replacement associated with rotator cuff and glenoid deficiency is challenging. Current surgical solutions are fraught with complications, and no best-practice strategy has been established. We hypothesized that the computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) shoulder (Stanmore Implants, Elstree, UK), a total shoulder design resembling a total hip prosthesis, can offer a reliable alternative in this surgically challenging subset of patients with rotator cuff deficiency and advanced glenoid bone loss. Twenty-one patients with failed post-traumatic humeral head replacement associated with rotator cuff and glenoid deficiency underwent revision with CAD/CAM shoulders between 2005 and 2010. Clinical data were collected prospectively and analyzed at a mean follow-up of 3 years. After revision, the pain rating at rest (on a 0-10 numerical scale) decreased from 5.6 ± 1.3 to 1.1 ± 1.3 (P < .001) and pain during activity decreased from 7.4 ± 1.2 to 2.1 ± 1.8 (P < .001). The Oxford shoulder score improved from 47 ± 6 to 31 ± 9 (P < .001), and the subjective shoulder value (on a 0%-100% scale) improved from 22% ± 14% to 45% ± 18% (P < .001). Active shoulder range of motion was similar before and after revision. Postoperative complications occurred in 9 patients and included 1 infection, 2 periprosthetic fractures, 2 prosthetic dislocations, and 4 fixation screw fractures. No case of glenoid loosening occurred. The CAD/CAM shoulder offers a reliable method of securing a glenoid component in shoulders with advanced glenoid deficiency and should be considered as an alternative to other surgical methods in these challenging cases. At 3 years' follow-up, pain and clinical scores improved significantly and no case of glenoid loosening occurred.Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jse.2013.05.004 · 2.37 Impact Factor