Supplemental dietary choline during development exerts antidepressant-like effects in adult female rats.
ABSTRACT Perinatal choline supplementation in rats is neuroprotective against insults such as fetal alcohol exposure, seizures, and advanced age. In the present study we explored whether dietary choline supplementation may also confer protection from psychological challenges, like stress, and act as a natural buffer against stress-linked psychological disorders, like depression. We previously found that choline supplementation increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a function compromised by stress, lowered in depression, and boosted by antidepressants; and increased levels of growth factors linked to depression, like brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Together, these were compelling reasons to study the role of choline in depressed mood. To do this, we treated rats with a choline supplemented diet (5 mg/kg choline chloride in AIN76A) prenatally on embryonic days 10-22, on postnatal days (PD) 25-50, or as adults from PD75 onward. Outside of these treatment periods rats were fed a standard diet (1.1 mg/kg choline chloride in AIN76A); control rats consumed only this diet throughout the study. Starting on PD100 rats' anxiety-like responses to an open field, learning in a water maze, and reactivity to forced swimming were assessed. Rats given choline supplementation during pre- or post-natal development, but not adult-treated rats, were less anxious in the open field and less immobile in the forced swim test than control rats. These effects were not mediated by a learning deficit as all groups performed comparably and well in the water maze. Thus, we offer compelling support for the hypothesis that supplemental dietary choline, at least when given during development, may inoculate an individual against stress and major psychological disorders, like depression.
Article: Water maze experience and prenatal choline supplementation differentially promote long-term hippocampal recovery from seizures in adulthood.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Status epilepticus (SE) in adulthood dramatically alters the hippocampus and produces spatial learning and memory deficits. Some factors, like environmental enrichment and exercise, may promote functional recovery from SE. Prenatal choline supplementation (SUP) also protects against spatial memory deficits observed shortly after SE in adulthood, and we have previously reported that SUP attenuates the neuropathological response to SE in the adult hippocampus just 16 days after SE. It is unknown whether SUP can ameliorate longer-term cognitive and neuropathological consequences of SE, whether repeatedly engaging the injured hippocampus in a cognitive task might facilitate recovery from SE, and whether our prophylactic prenatal dietary treatment would enable the injured hippocampus to more effectively benefit from cognitive rehabilitation. To address these issues, adult offspring from rat dams that received either a control (CON) or SUP diet on embryonic days 12-17 first received training on a place learning water maze task (WM) and were then administered saline or kainic acid (KA) to induce SE. Rats then either remained in their home cage, or received three additional WM sessions at 3, 6.5, and 10 weeks after SE to test spatial learning and memory retention. Eleven weeks after SE, the brains were analyzed for several hippocampal markers known to be altered by SE. SUP attenuated SE-induced spatial learning deficits and completely rescued spatial memory retention by 10 weeks post-SE. Repeated WM experience prevented SE-induced declines in glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and dentate gyrus neurogenesis, and attenuated increased glial fibrilary acidic protein (GFAP) levels. Remarkably, SUP alone was similarly protective to an even greater extent, and SUP rats that were water maze trained after SE showed reduced hilar migration of newborn neurons. These findings suggest that prophylactic SUP is protective against the long-term cognitive and neuropathological effects of KA-induced SE, and that rehabilitative cognitive enrichment may be partially beneficial.Hippocampus 03/2010; 21(6):584-608. · 5.18 Impact Factor
Article: Choline, a vital amine.Science 09/1998; 281(5378):794-5. · 31.20 Impact Factor
Article: Choline deficiency alters global histone methylation and epigenetic marking at the Re1 site of the calbindin 1 gene.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Maternal choline availability is essential for fetal neurogenesis. Choline deprivation (CD) causes hypomethylation of specific CpG islands in genes controlling cell cycling in fetal hippocampus. We now report that, in C57BL/6 mice, CD during gestational days 12-17 also altered methylation of the histone H3 in E17 fetal hippocampi. In the ventricular and subventricular zones, monomethyl-lysine 9 of H3 (H3K9me1) was decreased by 25% (P<0.01), and in the pyramidal layer, dimethyl-lysine 9 of H3 (H3K9me2) was decreased by 37% (P<0.05). These changes were region specific and were not observed in whole-brain preparations. Also, the same effects of CD on H3 methylation were observed in E14 neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in culture. Changes in G9a histone methyltransferase might mediate altered H3K9me2,1. Gene expression of G9a was decreased by 80% in CD NPCs (P<0.001). In CD, H3 was hypomethylated upstream of the RE1 binding site in the calbindin 1 promoter, and 1 CpG site within the calbindin1 promoter was hypermethylated. REST binding to RE1 (recruits G9a) was decreased by 45% (P<0.01) in CD. These changes resulted in increased expression of calbindin 1 in CD (260%; P<0.05). Thus, CD modulates histone methylation in NPCs, and this could underlie the observed changes in neurogenesis.The FASEB Journal 09/2009; 24(1):184-95. · 5.71 Impact Factor