Common principles of couple therapy.
ABSTRACT The similarity in efficacy of evidence-based couple therapies suggests that it may be useful to identify those treatment principles they hold in common. Expanding on the previous description of a unified protocol for couple therapy (Christensen, 2010), this article outlines five common principles: (a) altering the couple's view of the presenting problem to be more objective, contextualized, and dyadic; (b) decreasing emotion-driven, dysfunctional behavior; (c) eliciting emotion-based, avoided, private behavior; (d) increasing constructive communication patterns; and (e) emphasizing strengths and reinforcing gains. For each of these five elements of the unified protocol, the paper addresses how and to what extent the most common forms of evidence-based couple therapy carry out this principle. Implications for clinical practice, treatment research, and basic research on intimate relationships are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: We have recently demonstrated that globin mRNAs are effective primers for influenza viral RNA transcription in vitro catalyzed by the virion transcriptase [Bouloy, M., Plotch, S. J. & Krug, R. M. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 4886-4890]. Here, we present direct evidence that the 5'-terminal methylated cap of the globin mRNAs is transferred to viral complementary RNA (cRNA) during transcription. Chemical (beta-elimination) or enzymatic removal of the cap of globin mRNAs eliminated essentially all their priming activity. Much of this activity could be restored by recapping the beta-eliminated globin mRNAs with the vaccinia virus guanylyl and methyl transferases. Globin mRNAs containing (32)P label only in the cap (m(7)G(32)pppm(6)A(m)-) were prepared by recapping beta-eliminated globin mRNAs with the vaccinia virus enzymes, [alpha-(32)P]GTP, and unlabeled S-adenosylmethionine. By using this labeled globin mRNA as primer and unlabeled nucleoside triphosphates as precursors, the viral cRNA segments that were synthesized were shown to contain a (32)P-labeled 5'-terminal cap structure. Gel electrophoretic analysis indicated that the globin mRNA-primed cRNA segments were 10-15 nucleotides longer at their 5' end than ApG-primed cRNA segments, which initiate exactly at the 3' end of the virion RNA templates. This suggests that, in addition to the cap, about 10-15 other nucleotides are also transferred from the globin mRNA to viral cRNA. A mechanism for the priming of influenza viral cRNA synthesis by globin mRNA is proposed.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/1979; 76(4):1618-22. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity associated with the ribonucleoproteins of rice hoja blanca tenuivirus (RHBV) was detected and analyzed. Conditions for in vitro RNA synthesis and for coupled RNA synthesis-translation of RHBV were established. In both cases, synthesis of the viral and viral complementary genomic and subgenomic RNA3 and RNA4 were observed, demonstrating that both transcription and replication occurred. Though coupling of RNA synthesis to translation allowed efficient translation of the newly synthesized subgenomic RNAs, studies of the effect of various inhibitors of protein synthesis revealed that RNA synthesis was independent of translation. Primer extension experiments demonstrated that in the presence of capped exogenous RNAs, a stretch of 10 to 16 nonviral nucleotides was added to the 5' end of a population of newly synthesized viral complementary RNA4. It appears that in addition to RdRp activity, RHBV-associated protein(s) also possessed cap-snatching capacity.Journal of Virology 05/1997; 71(4):2621-7. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The influenza virus polymerase, a heterotrimer composed of three subunits, PA, PB1 and PB2, is responsible for replication and transcription of the eight separate segments of the viral RNA genome in the nuclei of infected cells. The polymerase synthesizes viral messenger RNAs using short capped primers derived from cellular transcripts by a unique 'cap-snatching' mechanism. The PB2 subunit binds the 5' cap of host pre-mRNAs, which are subsequently cleaved after 10-13 nucleotides by the viral endonuclease, hitherto thought to reside in the PB2 (ref. 5) or PB1 (ref. 2) subunits. Here we describe biochemical and structural studies showing that the amino-terminal 209 residues of the PA subunit contain the endonuclease active site. We show that this domain has intrinsic RNA and DNA endonuclease activity that is strongly activated by manganese ions, matching observations reported for the endonuclease activity of the intact trimeric polymerase. Furthermore, this activity is inhibited by 2,4-dioxo-4-phenylbutanoic acid, a known inhibitor of the influenza endonuclease. The crystal structure of the domain reveals a structural core closely resembling resolvases and type II restriction endonucleases. The active site comprises a histidine and a cluster of three acidic residues, conserved in all influenza viruses, which bind two manganese ions in a configuration similar to other two-metal-dependent endonucleases. Two active site residues have previously been shown to specifically eliminate the polymerase endonuclease activity when mutated. These results will facilitate the optimisation of endonuclease inhibitors as potential new anti-influenza drugs.Nature 03/2009; 458(7240):914-8. · 38.60 Impact Factor