Avalon Health Solutions, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Pfizer, Incorporated, New York, New York Department of Public Health Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.
Pain Practice (Impact Factor: 2.36). 02/2012; 12(7):550-60. DOI: 10.1111/j.1533-2500.2012.00532.x
Objective: To evaluate the use and direct medical costs of pharmacologic and alternative treatments for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and chronic low back pain (CLBP).
Methods: The LifeLink™ Health Plan Claims Database was used to identify patients ≥18 years old, diagnosed with OA (N = 112,951) or CLBP (N = 101,294). Of these patients, 64,085 with OA and 47,386 with CLBP received pain-related treatments during CY2008 and were selected for inclusion. For patients in both cohorts, pharmacologic and alternative treatments, and direct medical costs were examined during CY2008.
Results: Opioids were the most frequently prescribed medication (>70%) in both groups, followed by nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (>50%). Over 30% received antidepressants, >20% received benzodiazepines, and 15% in each group received sedative hypnotics. Use of alternative treatments was as follows: chiropractor, OA 11%, CLBP 34%; physical therapy, 20% in both groups; transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulations (TENS), OA 14%, CLBP 22%; acupuncture, hydrotherapy, massage therapy, and biofeedback, <3% in both groups. Mean (SD) total healthcare costs among these patients were, OA: $15,638 ($22,595); CLBP: $11,829 ($20,035). Pharmacologic therapies accounted for approximately 20% of these costs, whereas alternative treatments accounted for only 3% to 4% of the total costs.
Conclusions: Patients with OA and CLBP used a variety of pain-related and adjunctive medications. Although, alternative treatments are widely recommended, we found limited use of several of these in clinical practice, potentially due to the source of our data (commercial claims). Further research is needed to ascertain the extent to which such therapies contribute to the total costs of OA and CLBP management.
"Costs due to early retirement were not included in the calculations; however, data from 2012 show that back pain (and other musculoskeletal disorders) is the reason for only approximately 12% of the cases of early retirement nowadays . Even higher costs were reported from the USA, where annual costs resulting from chronic lower back pain patients were estimated at almost $12,000 for medical care alone, with a large proportion coming from in-and outpatient service . The problem of back pain may even increase in future, since members of the western population are showing a decrease in physical activity and an increase in weight over the years (e.g., ). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Back pain is the most common form of pain and leads to high costs in all medical care systems.
Objective. The present study examines the prevalence of back pain and its associations with some basic demographics.
Methods. Two samples from Poland and Germany (about n = 500 each) were examined via Internet regarding back pain, gender, age, and body mass index (BMI).
Results. Back pain is more common in women than in men (risk ratio about 1.7), and a high BMI constitutes an additional risk factor. Age was not related to back pain prevalence.
Conclusion. Congruent results in two countries based on the same measure of back pain lead to the assumption that much of the variety found in estimates of back pain are due to inconsistent assessment. For future research, a definition of common criteria on how to assess back pain would be an asset.
BioMed Research International 07/2014; 2014:901341. DOI:10.1155/2014/901341 · 3.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes. It presents as a variety of syndromes for which there is no universally accepted unique classification. Sensorimotor polyneuropathy is the most common type, affecting about 30% of diabetic patients in hospital care and 25% of those in the community. Pain is the reason for 40% of patient visits in a primary care setting, and about 20% of these have had pain for greater than 6 months. Chronic pain may be nociceptive, which occurs as a result of disease or damage to tissue with no abnormality in the nervous system. In contrast, neuropathic pain is defined as "pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system." Persistent neuropathic pain interferes significantly with quality of life, impairing sleep and recreation; it also significantly impacts emotional well-being, and is associated with depression, anxiety, and noncompliance with treatment. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a difficult-to-manage clinical problem, and patients with this condition are more apt to seek medical attention than those with other types of diabetic neuropathy. Early recognition of psychological problems is critical to the management of pain, and physicians need to go beyond the management of pain per se if they are to achieve success. This evidence-based review of the assessment of the patient with pain in diabetes addresses the state-of-the-art management of pain, recognizing all the conditions that produce pain in diabetes and the evidence in support of a variety of treatments currently available. A search of the full Medline database for the last 10 years was conducted in August 2012 using the terms painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, painful diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy, painful diabetic neuropathy and pain in diabetes. In addition, recent reviews addressing this issue were adopted as necessary. In particular, reports from the American Academy of Neurology and the Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy were included. Unfortunately, the results of evidence-based studies do not necessarily take into account the presence of comorbidities, the cost of treatment, or the role of third-party payers in decision-making. Thus, this review attempts to give a more balanced view of the management of pain in the diabetic patient with neuropathy and in particular the role of pregabalin.
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 02/2013; 6:57-78. DOI:10.2147/DMSO.S24825
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the most common and troublesome complication of diabetes mellitus, leading to the greatest morbidity and mortality and resulting in a huge economic burden for diabetes care. The clinical assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and its treatment options are multifactorial. Patients with DN should be screened for autonomic neuropathy, as there is a high degree of coexistence of the two complications. A review of the clinical assessment and treatment algorithms for diabetic neuropathy, painful neuropathy, and autonomic dysfunction is provided.
Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America 12/2013; 42(4):747-87. DOI:10.1016/j.ecl.2013.06.001 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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