Cytidine deaminase genetic variants influence RNA expression and cytarabine cytotoxicity in acute myeloid leukemia.
ABSTRACT Cytidine deaminase (CDA) irreversibly deaminates cytarabine (Ara-C), a key component of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induction and consolidation therapy. CDA overexpression results in Ara-C resistance, while decreased expression is associated with toxicity. We evaluated factors influencing variation in CDA mRNA expression in adult AML patients and normal controls, and how they contributed to Ara-C cytotoxicity in AML cells.
CDA mRNA expression in 100 de novo AML patients and 36 normal controls were determined using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR. Genetic variants in the CDA gene were screened by direct sequencing. IC₅₀ of Ara-C was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay.
CDA RNA expression as well as Ara-C IC₅₀ showed wide variation in AML samples and normal controls. Fourteen sequence variants were identified, three of which (-33delC, intron 2 TCAT repeat and the 3´untranslated region 816delC variants) showed significant association with RNA expression and the nonsynonymous coding variant 79A>C was associated with Ara-C cytotoxicity.
CDA genetic variants explain the variation in RNA expression and may be candidates for individualizing Ara-C therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Background The mechanism behind poor survival of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with 1-barabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C) based treatment remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the pharmacogenomic effects of Ara-C metabolic pathway in patients with AML.Methods The genotypes of 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DCK, CDA and SLC29A1from 100 AML patients treated with Ara-C were examined. All the SNPs were screened with ligase detection reaction assay. The transcription analysis of genes was examined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The association between clinical outcome and gene variants was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier method.ResultsGenotypes of rs9394992 and rs324148 for SLC29A1 in remission patients were significantly different from those in relapsed ones. Post-induction overall survival (OS) significantly decreased in patients with the CC genotype of rs324148 compared with CT and TT genotypes (hazard ratio [HR] =2.997 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71-5.27]). As compared with CT and TT genotype, patients with the CC genotype of rs9394992 had longer survival time (HR¿=¿0.25 [95% CI: 0.075-0.81]; HR¿=¿0.43 [95% CI: 0.24-0.78]) and longer disease-free survival (DFS) (HR¿=¿0.52 [95% CI: 0.29-0.93]; HR¿=¿0.15 [95% CI: 0.05-0.47]) as well As compared with CT and TT genotype, patients with the CC genotype of rs324148 had shorter DFS (HR¿=¿3.18 [95% CI: 1.76-5.76]). Additionally, patients with adverse karyotypes had shorter DFS (HR¿=¿0.17 [95% CI: 0.05-0.54]) and OS (HR¿=¿0.18 [95% CI: 0.05-0.68]).ConclusionsAML patients with low activity of SLC29A1 genotype have shorter DFS and OS in Ara-C based therapy. Genotypes of rs9394992 and rs324148 may be independent prognostic predictors for the survival of AML patients.Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 11/2014; 33(1):90. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-1004172062141452 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by bullous skin lesions and the presence of antibodies against desmoglein 1. In this study we sought to contribute to a better understanding of the molecular processes in endemic PF, since the identification of factors that participate in the pathogenesis is a prerequisite for understanding its biological basis and may lead to novel therapeutic interventions. CD4+ T lymphocytes are central to the development of the disease. Therefore, we compared genome-wide gene expression profiles of peripheral CD4+ T cells of various PF patient subgroups with each other and with that of healthy individuals. The patient sample was subdivided in three groups: untreated patients with the generalized form of the disease, patients submitted to immunosuppressive treatment, and patients with the localized form of the disease. Comparisons between different subgroups resulted in 135, 54 and 64 genes differentially expressed. These genes are mainly related with lymphocyte adhesion and migration, apoptosis, cellular proliferation, cytotoxicity and antigen presentation. Several of these genes were differentially expressed when comparing lesional and uninvolved skin from the same patient. The chromosomal regions 19q13 and 12p13 concentrate differentially expressed genes and are candidate regions for PF susceptibility genes and disease markers. Our results reveal genes involved in severity, potential therapeutic targets and previously unsuspected processes involved in the pathogenesis. Besides, this study adds original information that will contribute to the understanding of PF's pathogenesis and of the still poorly defined in vivo functions of most of these genes.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Immunology 05/2014; 143(3). DOI:10.1111/imm.12315 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been treated for over four decades with standard induction chemotherapy including seven days of cytosine arabinoside (cytarabine, ara-C) infusion. Cytarabine, while effective in killing leukemic cells, is subject to development of several resistance mechanisms rendering the drug ineffective in many patients. Elacytarabine, a lipophilic 5'-elaidic acid ester or nucleoside analogue of cytosine arabinoside, was created with the intent of overcoming resistance mechanisms including reduced expression of the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) required for cytarabine entry into cells, as well as increased activity of cytidine deaminase (CDA) which breaks down the active metabolite of cytarabine, ara-CTP. Elacytarabine enters cells independently of transporters, has a longer half life compared with cytarabine and is not subject to deactivation by CDA. Preclinical data were encouraging although subsequent clinical studies have failed to show superiority of elacytarabine compared with standard of care as monotherapy in patients with AML. Clinical trials utilizing elacytarabine in combination with anthracyclines are ongoing. Use of hENT1 expression as a predictive marker for cytarabine or elacytarabine response has been studied with no conclusive validation to date. Despite promising early results, the jury is still out in regards to this novel agent as an effective alternative to standard cytarabine therapy in acute leukemias, especially in combination with additional agents such as anthracyclines.12/2014; 5(6):211-220. DOI:10.1177/2040620714552615