Alternating access to the transmembrane domain of the ATP-binding cassette protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ABCC7).
ABSTRACT The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family, most members of which act as active transporters. Actively transporting ABC proteins are thought to alternate between "outwardly facing" and "inwardly facing" conformations of the transmembrane substrate pathway. In CFTR, it is assumed that the outwardly facing conformation corresponds to the channel open state, based on homology with other ABC proteins. We have used patch clamp recording to quantify the rate of access of cysteine-reactive probes to cysteines introduced into two different transmembrane regions of CFTR from both the intracellular and extracellular solutions. Two probes, the large [2-sulfonatoethyl]methanethiosulfonate (MTSES) molecule and permeant Au(CN)(2)(-) ions, were applied to either side of the membrane to modify cysteines substituted for Leu-102 (first transmembrane region) and Thr-338 (sixth transmembrane region). Channel opening and closing were altered by mutations in the nucleotide binding domains of the channel. We find that, for both MTSES and Au(CN)(2)(-), access to these two cysteines from the cytoplasmic side is faster in open channels, whereas access to these same sites from the extracellular side is faster in closed channels. These results are consistent with alternating access to the transmembrane regions, however with the open state facing inwardly and the closed state facing outwardly. Our findings therefore prompt revision of current CFTR structural and mechanistic models, as well as having broader implications for transport mechanisms in all ABC proteins. Our results also suggest possible locations of both functional and dysfunctional ("vestigial") gates within the CFTR permeation pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Previous cysteine scanning studies of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel have identified several transmembrane segments (TMs), including TM1, 3, 6, 9, and 12, as structural components of the pore. Some of these TMs such as TM6 and 12 may also be involved in gating conformational changes. However, recent results on TM1 seem puzzling in that the observed reactive pattern was quite different from those seen with TM6 and 12. In addition, whether TM1 also plays a role in gating motions remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated CFTR's TM1 by applying methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents from both cytoplasmic and extracellular sides of the membrane. Our experiments identified four positive positions, E92, K95, Q98, and L102, when the negatively charged MTSES was applied from the cytoplasmic side. Intriguingly, these four residues reside in the extracellular half of TM1 in previously defined CFTR topology; we thus extended our scanning to residues located extracellularly to L102. We found that cysteines introduced into positions 106, 107, and 109 indeed react with extracellularly applied MTS probes, but not to intracellularly applied reagents. Interestingly, whole-cell A107C-CFTR currents were very sensitive to changes of bath pH as if the introduced cysteine assumes an altered pKa-like T338C in TM6. These findings lead us to propose a revised topology for CFTR's TM1 that spans at least from E92 to Y109. Additionally, side-dependent modifications of these positions indicate a narrow region (L102-I106) that prevents MTS reagents from penetrating the pore, a picture similar to what has been reported for TM6. Moreover, modifications of K95C, Q98C, and L102C exhibit strong state dependency with negligible modification when the channel is closed, suggesting a significant rearrangement of TM1 during CFTR's gating cycle. The structural implications of these findings are discussed in light of the crystal structures of ABC transporters and homology models of CFTR.Biophysical Journal 02/2013; 104(4):786-97. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The retina-specific ABC transporter, ABCA4 protein, is associated with a broad range of inherited macular degenerations including Stargardt disease (STGD), autosomal recessive cone rod dystrophy (arCRD) and fundus flavimaculatus (FFM). In order to understand its role in retinal transport in rod out segment discs, we have investigated the interactions of the soluble domains of ABCA4 with both 11-cis and all-trans retinal. Using fluorescence anisotropy based binding analysis and recombinant polypeptides derived from the amino acid sequences of the four soluble domains of ABCA4, we demonstrated that the nucleotide binding domain 1 (NBD1) specifically bound 11-cis retinal. Its affinity for all-trans retinal was markedly reduced. Stargardt disease associated mutations in this domain resulted in attenuation of 11-cis retinal binding. Significant differences in 11-cis retinal binding affinities were observed between NBD1 and other cytoplasmic and lumenal domains of ABCA4. The results suggest a possible role of ABCA4, and in particular, the NBD1 domain in 11-cis retinal binding. These results also correlate well with a recent report on the in vivo role of ABCA4 in 11-cis retinal transport.Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
Article: CFTR structure and cystic fibrosis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette family of membrane proteins. Although almost all members of this family are transporters, CFTR functions as a channel with specificity for anions, in particular chloride and bicarbonate. In this review we look at what is known about CFTR structure and function within the context of the ATP-binding cassette family. We also review current strategies aimed at obtaining the high resolution structure of the protein.The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 01/2014; · 4.89 Impact Factor