Endocrine fibroblast growth factors 15/19 and 21: from feast to famine.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, 75390, USA.
Genes & development (Impact Factor: 12.64). 02/2012; 26(4):312-24. DOI: 10.1101/gad.184788.111
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We review the physiology and pharmacology of two atypical fibroblast growth factors (FGFs)-FGF15/19 and FGF21-that can function as hormones. Both FGF15/19 and FGF21 act on multiple tissues to coordinate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in response to nutritional status. Whereas FGF15/19 is secreted from the small intestine in response to feeding and has insulin-like actions, FGF21 is secreted from the liver in response to extended fasting and has glucagon-like effects. FGF21 also acts in an autocrine fashion in several tissues, including adipose. The pharmacological actions of FGF15/19 and FGF21 make them attractive drug candidates for treating metabolic disease.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background- Long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) catalyze long-chain fatty acids (FA) conversion to acyl-CoAs. Temporal ACSL1 inactivation in mouse hearts (Acsl1H-/-) impaired FA oxidation and dramatically increased glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, and mTOR activation, resulting in cardiac hypertrophy. We used unbiased metabolomics and gene expression analyses to elucidate the cardiac cellular response to increased glucose use in a genetic model of inactivated FA oxidation. Methods and Results- Metabolomics analysis identified 60 metabolites altered in Acsl1H-/- hearts, including 6 related to glucose metabolism and 11 to cysteine and glutathione pathways. Concurrently, global cardiac transcriptional analysis revealed differential expression of 568 genes in Acsl1H-/- hearts, a subset of which we hypothesized were targets of mTOR; subsequently, we measured the transcriptional response of several genes after chronic mTOR inhibition via rapamycin treatment during the period in which cardiac hypertrophy develops. Hearts from Acsl1H/ mice increased expression of several Hif1a-responsive glycolytic genes regulated by mTOR; additionally, expression of Scl7a5, Gsta1/2, Gdf15, and amino acid-responsive genes, Fgf21, Asns, Trib3, Mthfd2, were strikingly increased by mTOR activation. Conclusions- The switch from FA to glucose use causes mTOR-dependent alterations in cardiac metabolism. We identified cardiac mTOR-regulated genes not previously identified in other cellular models, suggesting heart-specific mTOR signaling. Increased glucose use also changed glutathione-related pathways and compensation by mTOR. The hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and metabolic changes that occur within the heart when glucose supplants FA as a major energy source suggest that substrate switching to glucose is not entirely benign.
    Journal of the American Heart Association 02/2015; 4(2). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.114.001136 · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While modernization has dramatically increased lifespan, it has also witnessed the increasing prevalence of diseases such as obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. Such chronic, acquired diseases result when normal physiologic control goes awry and may thus be viewed as failures of homeostasis. However, while nearly every process in human physiology relies on homeostatic mechanisms for stability, only some have demonstrated vulnerability to dysregulation. Additionally, chronic inflammation is a common accomplice of the diseases of homeostasis, yet the basis for this connection is not fully understood. Here we review the design of homeostatic systems and discuss universal features of control circuits that operate at the cellular, tissue, and organismal levels. We suggest a framework for classification of homeostatic signals that is based on different classes of homeostatic variables they report on. Finally, we discuss how adaptability of homeostatic systems with adjustable set points creates vulnerability to dysregulation and disease. This framework highlights the fundamental parallels between homeostatic and inflammatory control mechanisms and provides a new perspective on the physiological origin of inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factors 19 and 21 (FGF19 and FGF21) have been implicated, independently, in type 2 diabetes (T2D) but it is not known if their circulating levels correlate with each other or whether the associated hepatic signaling mechanisms that play a role in glucose metabolism are dysregulated in diabetes. We used a cross-sectional, case/control, experimental design involving Class III obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery (RYGB), and measured FGF19 and FGF21 serum levels and hepatic gene expression (mRNA) in perioperative liver wedge biopsies. We found that T2D patients had lower FGF19 and higher FGF21 serum levels. The latter was corroborated transcriptionally, whereby, FGF21, as well as CYP7A1, β-Klotho, FGFR4, HNF4α, and glycogen synthase, but not of SHP or FXR mRNA levels in liver biopsies were higher in T2D patients that did not remit diabetes after RYGB surgery, compared to T2D patients that remitted diabetes after RYGB surgery or did not have diabetes. In a Phenome-wide association analysis using 205 clinical variables, higher FGF21 serum levels were associated with higher glucose levels and various cardiometabolic disease phenotypes. When serum levels of FGF19 were < 200 mg/mL and FGF21 > 500 mg/mL, 91% of patients had diabetes. These data suggest that FGF19/FGF21 circulating levels and hepatic gene expression of the associated signaling pathway are significantly dysregulated in type 2 diabetes.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0116928. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116928 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Aug 8, 2014