Pharmacokinetics and tissue and tumor exposure of CP-31398, a p53-stabilizing agent, in rats.
ABSTRACT CP-31398 (N0-[2-[(E)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl] quinazolin-4-yl]-N,N-dimethylpropane-1,3-diamine hydrochloride) is one of the new class of agents that can stabilize the DNA-binding domain of p53 and thereby maintain the activity of p53 as a tumor suppressor and transcription factor. Through its activity as a p53 stabilizer, CP-31398 demonstrates significant cancer preventive and therapeutic activity in several in vivo animal models. The objective of the current study was to describe the pharmacokinetic profile and tissue distribution of this novel agent following intravenous or oral (gavage and dietary) administration.
CP-31398 was administered to male CD and F344 rats as a single intravenous bolus dose or by daily oral gavage dosing. Male F344 rats also received drug as an ad libitum dietary supplement. Plasma, liver, skin, colon, and colon tumor samples were collected after oral dosing. Concentrations of CP-31398 in plasma and tissue samples were analyzed using LC–MS/MS, and the resultant data were subjected to a non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis.
Bioavailability (12–32%), elimination half-life (14–20 h), clearance (4.2–4.8 l/h/kg), and volume of distribution (70–82 l/kg) were determined. Tissue levels of CP-31398 after oral (gavage or diet) administration were several orders of magnitude higher than were corresponding plasma concentrations; CP-31398 levels were especially high in colon and liver. Levels of CP-31398 in tissues were higher after gavage dosing than after dietary administration.
CP-31398 is bioavailable and has a relatively long elimination half-life, which supports the achievement of plasma steady-state levels with a once daily dosing regimen. CP-31398 exhibits a dramatically high volume of distribution, which is consistent with its tissue concentrations being much higher than corresponding plasma levels. It is accumulated in colon tumor tissues, albeit at lower concentrations than found in liver, skin, and colon.
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ABSTRACT: In colorectal carcinoma, KRAS (alias Ki-ras) and BRAF mutations have emerged as predictors of resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody treatment and worse patient outcome, respectively. In this study, we aimed to establish a high-throughput deep-sequencing workflow according to 454 pyrosequencing technology to cope with the increasing demand for sequence information at medical institutions. A cohort of 81 patients with known KRAS mutation status detected by Sanger sequencing was chosen for deep-sequencing. The workflow allowed us to analyze seven amplicons (one BRAF, two KRAS, and four TP53 exons) of nine patients in parallel in one deep-sequencing run. Target amplification and variant calling showed reproducible results with input DNA derived from FFPE tissue that ranged from 0.4 to 50 ng with the use of different targets and multiplex identifiers. Equimolar pooling of each amplicon in a deep-sequencing run was necessary to counterbalance differences in patient tissue quality. Five BRAF and 49 TP53 mutations with functional consequences were detected. The lowest mutation frequency detected in a patient tumor population was 5% in TP53 exon 5. This low-frequency mutation was successfully verified in a second PCR and deep-sequencing run. In summary, our workflow allows us to process 315 targets a week and provides the quality, flexibility, and speed needed to be integrated as standard procedure for mutational analysis in diagnostics.The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD 03/2013; 15(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jmoldx.2013.02.001 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Expression of the p53 tumor suppressor protein is frequently altered in tobacco-associated lung cancers. We studied chemopreventive effects of p53-modulating agents, namely, CP-31398 and Prima-1, on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung adenoma and adenocarcinoma formation in female A/J mice. Seven-week-old mice were treated with a single dose of NNK (10 µmol/mouse) by intraperitoneal injection and, 3 weeks later, were randomized to mice fed a control diet or experimental diets containing 50 or 100 ppm CP-31398 or 150 or 300 ppm Prima-1 for either 17 weeks (10 mice/group) or 34 weeks (15 mice/group) to assess the efficacy against lung adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Dietary feeding of 50 or 100 ppm CP-31398 significantly suppressed (P < .0001) lung adenocarcinoma by 64% and 73%, respectively, after 17 weeks and by 47% and 56%, respectively, after 34 weeks. Similarly, 150 or 300 ppm Prima-1 significantly suppressed (P < .0001) lung adenocarcinoma formation by 56% and 62%, respectively, after 17 weeks and 39% and 56%, respectively, after 34 weeks. Importantly, these results suggest that both p53 modulators cause a delay in the progression of adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung tumors from mice exposed to p53-modulating agents showed a significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation and increased accumulation of wild-type p53 in the nucleus. An increase in p21- and apoptotic-positive cells was also observed in lung tumors of mice exposed to p53-modulating agents. These results support a chemopreventive role of p53-modulating agents in tobacco carcinogen-induced lung adenocarcinoma formation.Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 09/2013; 15(9):1018-27. DOI:10.1593/neo.131256 · 5.40 Impact Factor