Highly sensitive electrochemical detection of proteins using aptamer-coated gold nanoparticles and surface enzyme reactions.
ABSTRACT A novel electrochemical detection methodology is described for the femtomolar detection of proteins which utilizes both DNA aptamer-functionalized nanoparticles and a surface enzymatic reaction. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) was used as a model protein biomarker, which possesses two distinct epitopes for antibody (anti-IgE) and DNA aptamer binding. A surface sandwich assay format was utilized involving the specific adsorption of IgE onto a gold electrode surface that was pre-modified with a monolayer of aptamer-nanoparticle conjugates followed by the specific interaction of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) conjugated anti-IgE. To clearly demonstrate the signal enhancement associated with nanoparticle use, anodic current measurements of the ALP catalyzed oxidation of the enzyme substrate 4-aminophenylphosphate (APP) were also compared with electrode surfaces upon which the aptamer was directly attached. The detection of an unlabelled protein at concentrations as low as 5 fM is a significant improvement compared to conventional electrochemical-based immunoassay approaches and provides a foundation for the practical use and incorporation of nanoparticle-enhanced detection into electrochemical biosensing technologies.
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ABSTRACT: The unique properties of nanoscale materials offer excellent prospects for interfacing biological recognition events with electronic signal transduction and for designing a new generation of bioelectronic devices exhibiting novel functions. In this Highlight I address recent research that has led to powerful nanomaterial-based electrical biosensing devices and examine future prospects and challenges. New nanoparticle-based signal amplification and coding strategies for bioaffinity assays are discussed, along with carbon-nanotube molecular wires for achieving efficient electrical communication with redox enzyme and nanowire-based label-free DNA sensors.The Analyst 05/2005; 130(4):421-6. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and miniaturized immunoassay by coupling a microbead-based immunoassay with an interdigitated array (IDA) electrode. An IDA electrode amplifies the signal by recycling an electrochemically redox-reversible molecule. The microfabricated platinum electrodes had 25 pairs of electrodes with 1.6-microm gaps and 2.4-microm widths. An enzyme-labeled sandwich immunoassay on paramagnetic microbeads with mouse IgG as the analyte and beta-galactosidase as the enzyme label was used as the model system. beta-Galactosidase converted p-aminophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside to p-aminophenol (PAP). This enzyme reaction was measured continuously by positioning the microbeads near the electrode surface with a magnet. Electrochemical recycling occurred with PAP oxidation to p-quinone imine (PQI) at +290 mV followed by PQI reduction to PAP at -300 mV vs Ag/AgCl. Dual-electrode detection amplified the signal fourfold compared to single-electrode detection, and the recycling efficiency reached 87%. A calibration curve of PAP concentration vs anodic current was linear between 10(-4) and 10(-6)M. A signal from 1000 beads in a 20-microL drop was detectable and the immunoassay was complete within 10 min with a detection limit of 3.5x10(-15)mol mouse IgG.Analytical Biochemistry 06/2004; 328(2):113-22. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder with an increasing prevalence in industrialized countries. Genox Research Incorporation was founded in 1996 to identify new genes involved in allergic diseases in collaboration with the National Children's Hospital in Tokyo. In the AE project, they have discovered several hundred new genes and partial DNA sequences by mainly using microarrays. Here, I review the results obtained using transcriptome analysis, performed by Genox and other investigators. Transcriptome analysis using skin lesion, CD4+ T cells, monocytes and eosinophils derived from AE patients identified some differentially expressed genes which became biologically relevant in the following studies. Missing linkages between these genes have been found due to the recent development of genomics. Many AE-related genes found in the genome-wide studies still remain to be determined regarding their functions and to be systemically organized. After the comprehensive characterization of these genes by further studies, we will identify the precise molecular mechanisms involved in AE and other diseases.International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 09/2005; 137(4):319-25. · 2.25 Impact Factor