Calcium, phosphate and the risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in a population with stable coronary heart disease.
ABSTRACT High serum calcium and phosphate levels have been linked to cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality but evidence from longitudinal studies is scarce, especially among patients with pre-existing coronary heart disease. The association between baseline calcium and phosphate and prognosis was examined in a cohort study of patients with stable coronary heart disease.
Serum calcium and phosphate were measured in a cohort of initially 1206 patients undergoing a 3 week rehabilitation programme after an acute cardiovascular event and subsequently being followed-up for 8 years. Multivariate Cox regression was employed to assess the association of quartiles and continuous levels of calcium and phosphate with secondary cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality.
No significant risk elevations were observed for secondary cardiovascular event incidence in models adjusted for a variety of potential confounders. High calcium levels, however, were strongly associated with mortality risk in adjusted models (HR(Q4vsQ1)=2.39 (1.22 to 4.66)). In additional multivariable analyses, the calcium/albumin ratio was predictive for all-cause mortality (HR(Q4vsQ1)=2.66 (1.35 to 5.22)) and marginally predictive for cardiovascular event incidence (HR(Q4vsQ1)=1.74 (1.00 to 3.05)).
Calcium and the ratio of calcium with albumin, its major binding protein, were strongly associated with all-cause mortality among patients with coronary heart disease. The underlying mechanisms and the clinical implications of these findings deserve further study.
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ABSTRACT: Calcium is a mineral that is important for bone health and has also been suggested to play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lately, the potential effects of both inadequate and excessive calcium intake have received growing attention. In this review, we summarize the evidence from experimental, epidemiologic, and clinical studies investigating the role of calcium intake, either from the diet or from supplements, as well as blood concentrations, in relation to the risk of CVD in adults. In vitro and in vivo laboratory studies suggest that calcium may be involved in CVD development through multiple pathways, including blood cholesterol, insulin secretion and sensitivity, vasodilation, inflammatory profile, thrombosis, obesity, and vascular calcification. Several prospective epidemiologic studies have examined how dietary or supplemental calcium intake is associated with CVD incidence or mortality in middle-aged and older adults, and the results are inconsistent. Prospective studies investigating blood concentrations of calcium have also reported mixed results. However, changes in blood calcium concentrations may reflect a disturbed calcium phosphate balance, which is associated with increased risk of CVD. To date there is no randomized clinical trial that has been designed specifically to test the effect of calcium supplementation on the risk of CVD as the primary end point. Existing trials have performed secondary analyses, and most of them have been conducted among postmenopausal women. These trials suggest that calcium supplementation has no effect on CVD development; however, they do not allow a definitive conclusion to be drawn. The average daily intake of calcium is low in many populations; however, the evidence for a potential role of dietary or supplemental calcium in the prevention of CVD remains insufficient and inconclusive. Only large-scale randomized trials designed to investigate the effects of calcium supplementation on CVD events as the primary end point, as well as short-term trials investigating the effect on coronary biomarkers, can provide a definitive answer.Current Atherosclerosis Reports 11/2013; 15(11):362. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective : To compare the coronary atherosclerotic plaque 64-slice spiral CT characteristics and the risk factors of Han (in Inner Mongolia) and Mongolian coronary artery disease patients. Metho d s: The plaques of 126 Mongolian and 269 Han patients were analyzed by 64-slice spiral CT coronary angiography. Their gender, age, height, body mass, the history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking and family diseases, the levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were compared. Results: The incidence of plaques (P <0.05), the proportion of plaques in the circumflex branch (P <0.05), the proportion of medium-severe lumen stenosis induced by plaques (P <0.05), and the proportion of obstructive plaque involved multi-branch (P <0.05) of the Mongolian patients were higher. The plaque compositions of the two groups did not differ significantly (P> 0.05). The body mass index of the Mongolian patients was higher (P <0.05). The hypertension, diabetes, smoking history, TG, TC, HDL-C and LDL-C of the two groups did not differ significantly (P> 0.05). Conclusion: The higher incidence of coronary atherosclerotic plaques and the more severe lesions of the Mongolian patients may be related to their higher body mass index.Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Online 07/2013; 29(4):933-7. · 0.10 Impact Factor
- Turk Kardiyoloji Dernegi arsivi: Turk Kardiyoloji Derneginin yayin organidir 01/2014; 42(1):102-111.