In continuing our search for novel tyrosinase inhibitors, a series of 5-(substituted benzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-diones were rationally designed and synthesized, and their inhibitory effects on mushroom tyrosinase activity were evaluated. Twelve target compounds 2a-2l were designed and synthesized based on the structural characteristics of N-phenylthiourea, a tyrosinase inhibitor, and tyrosine and L-DOPA, the natural substrates of tyrosinase. Among them, (Z)-5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (2a) and (Z)-5-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (2f) exhibited much higher tyrosinase inhibitory activities, with IC(50) values of 13.36 and 9.87 μM, respectively, than kojic acid (IC(50) = 24.72 μM). Kinetic analysis of tyrosinase inhibition revealed that 2a and 2f are competitive inhibitors of mushroom tyrosinase. In addition, through prediction of the potato catechol oxidase tertiary structure and simulation of docking with compounds 2a and 2f using DOCK6, we found that these inhibitors likely bind to the active site of the enzyme. Docking simulation results suggested that 2a and 2f have high binding affinities with potato catechol oxidase. In addition, compounds 2a and 2f effectively inhibited tyrosinase activity and reduced melanin levels in B16 cells treated with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). These data strongly suggest that compounds 2a and 2f suppress the production of melanin via the inhibition of tyrosinase activity.
"On the other hand the thiazolidinedione analogues were investigated for the treatment of a variety of diseases, e.g., as anticancer (Havrylyuk et al., 2009), anti -HIV (Rawal et al., 2005), anti-ischemic (Adachi et al., 1999), anticonvulsant (Ergenç et al.,1994 ), antimicrobial (Piscopo et al., 1989), antihistaminic (Previtera et al., 1994; Diurno et al., 1999), and antidiabetic agents (Carroll et al., 2011; Bruno et al.,2002), 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase inhibitors (Wu et al., 2011; Zidar et al., 2010), inhibitors of MurD ligase (Ha et al., 2012), aldose reductase inhibitors (Ma et al., 2012), for their anti-obesity effects (Bhattarai et al., 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of novel thiazolidinedione analogues (TZD) were designed and synthesized potent inhibitors of HBV capsid assembly. The synthesis of thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives (4a–4o), starting from the condensation of 5-(ethoxymethylene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (1) with various secondary amines (3) derived from biologically active compounds. The newly synthesized TZD analogues 4a-4o were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and MS and evaluated for their anti-HBV activity. Most of the compounds inhibited the expression of viral antigens at low concentration. Six compounds, 4g, 4h, 4l, 4m, 4n, and 4o, demonstrated potent inhibition of HBV DNA replication at submicromolar range. Of these five initial hits, compound 4o was the most active when compared with lamivudine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We attempted to design and synthesize (E)-N-substituted benzylidene-hydroxy or methoxy-aniline derivatives and to evaluate their inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity and anti-melanogenesis activity in murine B16F10 melanoma cells. Derivatives with a 4-methoxy- or 4-hydroxy-anilino group exerted more potent inhibition against mushroom tyrosinase than those with a 2-hydroxyanilino group. (E)-4-((4-Hydroxyphenylimino)methyl)benzene-1,2-diol exhibited the most potent and non-competitive inhibition on mushroom tyrosinase showing an IC(50) of 17.22 ± 0.38 μM and being more effective than kojic acid (51.11 ± 1.42 μM). This compound decreased melanin production stimulated by the alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and inhibited murine tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, we propose (E)-4-((4-hydroxyphenylimino)methyl)benzene-1,2-diol as a new candidate of potent tyrosinase inhibitors that could be used as therapeutic agent with safe skin-whitening efficiency.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2012; 57C:383-390. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2012.09.026 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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