Design and synthesis of 5-(substituted benzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives as novel tyrosinase inhibitors
ABSTRACT In continuing our search for novel tyrosinase inhibitors, a series of 5-(substituted benzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-diones were rationally designed and synthesized, and their inhibitory effects on mushroom tyrosinase activity were evaluated. Twelve target compounds 2a-2l were designed and synthesized based on the structural characteristics of N-phenylthiourea, a tyrosinase inhibitor, and tyrosine and L-DOPA, the natural substrates of tyrosinase. Among them, (Z)-5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (2a) and (Z)-5-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (2f) exhibited much higher tyrosinase inhibitory activities, with IC(50) values of 13.36 and 9.87 μM, respectively, than kojic acid (IC(50) = 24.72 μM). Kinetic analysis of tyrosinase inhibition revealed that 2a and 2f are competitive inhibitors of mushroom tyrosinase. In addition, through prediction of the potato catechol oxidase tertiary structure and simulation of docking with compounds 2a and 2f using DOCK6, we found that these inhibitors likely bind to the active site of the enzyme. Docking simulation results suggested that 2a and 2f have high binding affinities with potato catechol oxidase. In addition, compounds 2a and 2f effectively inhibited tyrosinase activity and reduced melanin levels in B16 cells treated with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). These data strongly suggest that compounds 2a and 2f suppress the production of melanin via the inhibition of tyrosinase activity.
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ABSTRACT: We attempted to design and synthesize (E)-N-substituted benzylidene-hydroxy or methoxy-aniline derivatives and to evaluate their inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity and anti-melanogenesis activity in murine B16F10 melanoma cells. Derivatives with a 4-methoxy- or 4-hydroxy-anilino group exerted more potent inhibition against mushroom tyrosinase than those with a 2-hydroxyanilino group. (E)-4-((4-Hydroxyphenylimino)methyl)benzene-1,2-diol exhibited the most potent and non-competitive inhibition on mushroom tyrosinase showing an IC(50) of 17.22 ± 0.38 μM and being more effective than kojic acid (51.11 ± 1.42 μM). This compound decreased melanin production stimulated by the alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and inhibited murine tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, we propose (E)-4-((4-hydroxyphenylimino)methyl)benzene-1,2-diol as a new candidate of potent tyrosinase inhibitors that could be used as therapeutic agent with safe skin-whitening efficiency.European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2012; 57C:383-390. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2012.09.026 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The promising activity shown by compounds containing thiazolidine-2,4-dione nucleus in numerous categories such as anti-hyperglycaemics, aldose reductase inhibitors, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritics, anti-microbials, etc. has made it an indispensable anchor for development of new therapeutic agents. Varied substituents on the thiazolidine-2,4-dione nucleus have provided a wide spectrum of biological activities. Importance of this nucleus in some activities like, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonism and PPARγ-dependent and -independent anti-cancer activities are reviewed separately in literature. Short reviews on biological importance of this nucleus are also known in literature. However, owing to fast development of new drugs possessing thiazolidine-2,4-dione nucleus many research reports are generated in short span of time. So, there is a need to couple the latest information with the earlier information to understand the current status of thiazolidine-2,4-dione nucleus in medicinal chemistry research. In the present review, various derivatives of thiazolidine-2,4-diones with different pharmacological activities are described on the basis of substitution pattern around the nucleus combined with the docking studies performed in the active site of the corresponding receptors with an aim to help medicinal chemists for developing an SAR on thiazolidine-2,4-dione derived compounds for each activity. This discussion will further help in the development of novel thiazolidine-2,4-dione compounds.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 01/2013; 21(7). DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2013.01.029 · 2.95 Impact Factor