Agmatine, an endogenous ligand of imidazoline receptor protects against memory impairment and biochemical alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
ABSTRACT Agmatine, a polycationic amine synthesized via decarboxylation of l-arginine by arginine decarboxylase is reported to exhibit anti-hyperglycemic, antioxidant and memory enhancing effects. Therefore, we tested its influence against cognitive dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using Morris water maze and object recognition paradigm. Lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels as parameters of oxidative stress and choline esterase (ChE) activity as a marker of cholinergic function were assessed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Thirty days after diabetes induction rats showed a severe deficit in learning and memory associated with increased lipid peroxidation, decreased reduced glutathione, and elevated ChE activity. In contrast, chronic treatment with agmatine (5-10mg/kg, i.p. for 30 days) improved cognitive performance, lowered hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and ChE activity in diabetic rats. Further, memory improving effects of agmatine were independent of adrenal I(2) imidazoline receptors. In a separate set, agmatine treatment for an initial 15 days after diabetes confirmation also significantly reduced memory impairment during training trials after 30 days of diabetes confirmation. Moreover, treatment during training trials (30 days after diabetes) also significantly reduced memory impairment in diabetic rats. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that treatment with agmatine prevents changes in oxidative stress and ChE activity, and probably consequent memory impairment in diabetic rats.
Article: Neuroprotective effects of agmatine in mice infused with a single intranasal administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have recently demonstrated that rodents treated intranasally with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) suffered impairments in olfactory, cognitive, emotional and motor functions associated with time-dependent disruption of dopaminergic neurotransmission in different brain structures conceivably analogous to those observed during different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Agmatine, an endogenous arginine metabolite, has been proposed as a novel neuromodulator that plays protective roles in several models of neuronal cellular damage. In the present study we demonstrated that repeated treatment with agmatine (30mg/kg, i.p.) during 5 consecutive days increased the survival rate (from 40% to 80%) of 15-month-old C57BL/6 female mice infused with a single intranasal (i.n.) administration of MPTP (1mg/nostril), improving the general neurological status of the surviving animals. Moreover, pretreatment with agmatine was found to attenuate short-term social memory and locomotor activity impairments observed at different periods after i.n. MPTP administration. These behavioral benefits of exogenous agmatine administration were accompanied by a protection against the MPTP-induced decrease of hippocampal glutamate uptake and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of aging mice, without altering brain monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity. These results provide new insights in experimental models of PD, indicating that agmatine represents a potential therapeutic tool for the management of cognitive and motor symptoms of PD, together with its neuroprotective effects.Behavioural brain research 08/2012; 235(2):263-72. · 3.22 Impact Factor