Depressive symptoms and level of physical activity in patients with Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of depressive symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease, to assess whether there was an association between physical activity level and depressive symptoms in this population, and to assess whether more active patients had lower rates of depressive symptoms when compared with less active patients. Methods: The study included 37 patients with Alzheimer's disease and used the following instruments: the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia and the Baecke Questionnaire Modified for the Elderly. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine whether the data were normally distributed. The Spearman correlation test and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used. P-values less than 5% were considered statistically significant. Results and discussion: The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the sample was 35.13%. The Spearman correlation test verified the relationship between level of physical activity and depressive symptoms (rho = -0,4), and between the sports activities domain and depressive symptoms (rho = -0,4). Patients who were more active had lower depressive symptoms. Conclusions: The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the sample was 35.13%. Patients who were more active had lower rates of depressive symptoms. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2012; ••: ••-••.
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ABSTRACT: Exercise training for patients with Alzheimer disease combined with teaching caregivers how to manage behavioral problems may help decrease the frailty and behavioral impairment that are often prevalent in patients with Alzheimer disease. To determine whether a home-based exercise program combined with caregiver training in behavioral management techniques would reduce functional dependence and delay institutionalization among patients with Alzheimer disease. Randomized controlled trial of 153 community-dwelling patients meeting National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for Alzheimer disease, conducted between June 1994 and April 1999. Patient-caregiver dyads were randomly assigned to the combined exercise and caregiver training program, Reducing Disability in Alzheimer Disease (RDAD), or to routine medical care (RMC). The RDAD program was conducted in the patients' home over 3 months. Physical health and function (36-item Short-Form Health Survey's [SF-36] physical functioning and physical role functioning subscales and Sickness Impact Profile's Mobility subscale), and affective status (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Cornell Depression Scale for Depression in Dementia). At 3 months, in comparison with the routine care patients, more patients in the RDAD group exercised at least 60 min/wk (odds ratio [OR], 2.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-6.39; P =.01) and had fewer days of restricted activity (OR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.08-8.95; P<.001). Patients in the RDAD group also had improved scores for physical role functioning compared with worse scores for patients in the RMC group (mean difference, 19.29; 95% CI, 8.75-29.83; P<.001). Patients in the RDAD group had improved Cornell Depression Scale for Depression in Dementia scores while the patients in the RMC group had worse scores (mean difference, -1.03; 95% CI, -0.17 to -1.91; P =.02). At 2 years, the RDAD patients continued to have better physical role functioning scores than the RMC patients (mean difference, 10.89; 95% CI, 3.62-18.16; P =.003) and showed a trend (19% vs 50%) for less institutionalization due to behavioral disturbance. For patients with higher depression scores at baseline, those in the RDAD group improved significantly more at 3 months on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (mean difference, 2.21; 95% CI, 0.22-4.20; P =.04) and maintained that improvement at 24 months (mean difference, 2.14; 95% CI, 0.14-4.17; P =.04). Exercise training combined with teaching caregivers behavioral management techniques improved physical health and depression in patients with Alzheimer disease.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 10/2003; 290(15):2015-22. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A validated physical activity questionnaire for young adults was adapted and validated for use in free living, apparently healthy people, aged 63-80 yr. Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire on 29 participants was 0.89 as determined by Spearman's correlation coefficient. Further classification by tertiles of activity resulted in 72% of the participants being correctly classified and 0% grossly misclassified on two separate occasions. In a similar group of 31 subjects, classifications based on questionnaire activity scores were compared with classifications obtained by repeated 24-h activity recalls and pedometer measurements, showing Spearman's correlations of 0.78 and 0.73, for both methods, respectively. Seventy-one and 67% of the subjects, respectively, were classified in the same activity tertile for both methods. It is concluded that the questionnaire provides a reliable and valid method for classifying elderly subjects into categories of high, medium, and low physical activity.Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 09/1991; 23(8):974-9. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer disease (AD) and cognitively impaired nondemented (CIND) subjects from a community-based Brazilian sample and to correlate these symptoms with severity of cognitive deficits. A total of 1,563 randomly selected subjects were evaluated with the following screening tests: Mini-Mental Status Examination, Fuld Object Memory Evaluation, Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, and Activities of Daily Living-International Scale. Screen positives were submitted to a workup for dementia, physical and neurologic examination, cranial computed tomography or cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, the Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders, Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Diagnosis was made according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria. Sixty patients with AD, 25 CIND, and 78 healthy elderly subjects were evaluated. Informants reported that 78.33% of patients with AD had one or more neuropsychiatric symptoms. Apathy (53.33%), depression (38.33%), sleep alterations (38.33%), and anxiety (25%) were the most prevalent disturbances in AD subjects. These disturbances were more prevalent in patients with AD than in the comparison group and CIND individuals. In the CIND group, the most frequent neuropsychiatric symptoms were anxiety and sleep alterations (both with 24%) followed by depression (16%). Total NPI scores were significantly different between AD and CIND groups, AD and comparison groups, and CIND and the comparison group. Apathy was the only neuropsychiatric symptom that was significantly different between the groups divided according to the CDR being more frequent in subjects with moderate to severe dementia. Neuropsychiatric symptoms seem to be as common in patients living in a developing country as they are in demented patients from the developed world. Indeed, the fact that some of our results are similar to other population-based studies may suggest that cultural factors play a minor role in the emergence of these symptoms, at least in a Latin American country like Brazil.American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 06/2006; 14(5):438-45. · 4.13 Impact Factor