Re'COG'nition at the Golgi.
ABSTRACT The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex co-ordinates retrograde vesicle transport within the Golgi. These vesicles maintain the distribution of glycosylation enzymes between the Golgi's cisternae, and therefore COG is intimately involved in glycosylation homeostasis. Recent years have greatly enhanced our knowledge of COG's composition, protein interactions, cellular function and most recently also its structure. The emergence of COG-dependent human glycosylation disorders gives particular relevance to these advances. The structural data have firmly placed COG in the family of multi-subunit tethering complexes that it shares with the exocyst, Dsl1 and Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complexes. Here, we review our knowledge of COG's involvement in vesicle tethering at the Golgi. In particular, we consider what this knowledge may add to our molecular understanding of vesicle tethering and how it impacts on the fine tuning of Golgi function, most notably glycosylation.
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ABSTRACT: Biochemical, immunological, and genetic techniques were used to investigate the genetic defects in three types of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient hamster cells. The previously isolated ldlB, ldlC, and ldlD mutants all synthesized essentially normal amounts of a 125,000-D precursor form of the LDL receptor, but were unable to process this receptor to the mature form of 155,000 D. Instead, these mutants produced abnormally small, heterogeneous receptors that reached the cell surface but were rapidly degraded thereafter. The abnormal sizes of the LDL receptors in these cells were due to defective processing of the LDL receptor's N- and O-linked carbohydrate chains. Processing defects in these cells appeared to be general since the ldlB, ldlC, and ldlD mutants also showed defective glycosylation of a viral glycoprotein, alterations in glycolipid synthesis, and changes in resistance to several toxic lectins. Preliminary structural studies suggested that these cells had defects in multiple stages of the Golgi-associated processing reactions responsible for synthesis of glycolipids and in the N-linked and O-linked carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins. Comparisons between the ldl mutants and a large number of previously isolated CHO glycosylation defective mutants showed that the genetic defects in ldlB, ldlC, and ldlD cells were unique and that only very specific types of carbohydrate alteration could dramatically affect LDL receptor function.The Journal of Cell Biology 06/1986; 102(5):1576-85. · 10.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Sec34/35 complex was identified as one of the evolutionarily conserved protein complexes that regulates a cis-Golgi step in intracellular vesicular transport. We have identified three new proteins that associate with Sec35p and Sec34p in yeast cytosol. Mutations in these Sec34/35 complex subunits result in defects in basic Golgi functions, including glycosylation of secretory proteins, protein sorting, and retention of Golgi resident proteins. Furthermore, the Sec34/35 complex interacts genetically and physically with the Rab protein Ypt1p, intra-Golgi SNARE molecules, as well as with Golgi vesicle coat complex COPI. We propose that the Sec34/35 protein complex acts as a tether that connects cis-Golgi membranes and COPI-coated, retrogradely targeted intra-Golgi vesicles.The Journal of Cell Biology 06/2002; 157(4):631-43. · 10.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The specificity of intracellular vesicle transport is mediated in part by tethering factors that attach the vesicle to the destination organelle prior to fusion. We have identified a protein, Dor1p, that is involved in vesicle targeting to the yeast Golgi apparatus and found it to be associated with seven further proteins. Identification of these revealed that they include Sec34p and Sec35p, the two known components of the Sec34/35 complex previously proposed to tether vesicles to the Golgi. Of the six previously uncharacterized components, four have homologs in higher eukaryotes, including a subunit of a mammalian Golgi transport complex. Furthermore, several of the proteins show distant homology to components of two other putative tethering complexes, the exocyst and the Vps52/53/54 complex, revealing that tethering factors involved in different membrane traffic steps are structurally related.Developmental Cell 11/2001; 1(4):527-37. · 12.86 Impact Factor