Contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine in hair dye following sensitization to black henna tattoos - an ongoing problem
ABSTRACT The increased frequency of case reports of allergic contact dermatitis from non-permanent black henna tattoos in recent years shows the popularity of this form of body painting.
Seven patients presented with allergic contact dermatitis after initial hair or eyelash dyeing. They all had a history of a previous reaction from a black henna tattoo. All were patch tested with the European standard patch test series and the standard supplemental series, as well as special series for dyes and hairdressers.
All seven patients showed a positive reaction in patch testing with para-phenylenediamine (PPD) (0.3 % and/or 1.0 % in pet.). Five patients also had positive reactions to other dyes such as aminophenol, para-toluene diamine, disperse orange and yellow and four patients reacted to benzocaine. These were interpreted as cross-reactions. The time from sensitization by the black henna tattoo to the onset of allergic contact dermatitis after hair dyeing was an average of 6.2 years.
The most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis after black henna tattoos is PPD. Both the long skin contact and the high concentrations of PPD increase the risk of sensitization. Allergic contact dermatitis may be followed by post-inflammatory hyper- or hypopigmentation, scarring and lifelong sensitization, which can have occupational impact, especially for hair dressers and cosmeticians.
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ABSTRACT: It is highly popular among children and young adults to have temporary henna tattoos on their bodies in different colors and figures. Henna is a greenish natural powder obtained from the flowers and dry leaves of Lawsonia alba plant and its allergenicity is very low. Henna is also used in combination with other coloring substances such as para-phenylenediamine in order to darken the color and create a permanent tattoo effect. Para-phenylenediamine is a substance with high allergenicity potential and may cause serious allergic reactions. Here, we aimed to draw attention to the potential harms of para-phenylenediamine containing temporary tattoos by presenting a child patient who developed allergic contact dermatitis after having a scorpion-shaped temporary tattoo on his forearm.Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology 08/2012; 32(2). DOI:10.3109/15569527.2012.709570 · 1.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. Hairdressers constitute one of the largest occupational groups attending our occupational dermatology clinic in Melbourne, Australia. Objectives. To perform a retrospective review of the clinical assessments of hairdressers and trainee hairdressers attending our clinic, including patch testing results. Patients/materials/methods. We used our clinic database to identify trainee and qualified hairdressers who had attended our occupational dermatology clinic between January 1993 and December 2010. Results. One hundred and sixty-four hairdressers and hairdressing apprentices were identified. One hundred and fifty-seven had a diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD), with allergic contact dermatitis being the primary diagnosis in 71% and irritant contact dermatitis in 20%. Involvement of more than one body part was suggestive of allergic contact dermatitis (p = 0.05). Sixty-five per cent of participants were found to have more than one factor contributing to their OCD. Allergic contact dermatitis was more common in apprentices than in qualified hairdressers. Ammonium persulfate, p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine and glyceryl monothioglycolate were the most common occupational allergens. Nickel allergy was seen in 31% of hairdressers, but considered to be occupationally relevant in only 3%. Conclusions. Multiple sensitizations and multiple factors contributing to OCD in hairdressers are common. More needs to be done to prevent the development of OCD in hairdressers in our geographical region.Contact Dermatitis 04/2013; 68(5). DOI:10.1111/cod.12016 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Allergic contact dermatitis from nonpermanent black henna tattoos has been frequently reported, particularly in children. Contamination or adulteration of the dyes with para-phenylendiamine has been identified as major cause of active sensitization and elicitation of severe allergic contact dermatitis. Sequelae include permanent sensitization, hyper- or hypopigmentation, scarring, keloids, and hypertrichosis. We report a rare case of irritant dermatitis to an unknown ingredient in a black henna tattoo with consecutive hypopigmentation. Sensitization to para-phenylendiamine and other para-compounds was excluded by patch test evaluation. This is relevant for future exposure to consumer products such as hair dyes or in occupational settings. Generally, black henna tattoos, particularly if done with dyes of unknown composition, should be strongly discouraged.PEDIATRICS 05/2013; 131(6). DOI:10.1542/peds.2012-2938 · 5.47 Impact Factor