Contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine in hair dye following sensitization to black henna tattoos - An ongoing problem
The increased frequency of case reports of allergic contact dermatitis from non-permanent black henna tattoos in recent years shows the popularity of this form of body painting.
Seven patients presented with allergic contact dermatitis after initial hair or eyelash dyeing. They all had a history of a previous reaction from a black henna tattoo. All were patch tested with the European standard patch test series and the standard supplemental series, as well as special series for dyes and hairdressers.
All seven patients showed a positive reaction in patch testing with para-phenylenediamine (PPD) (0.3 % and/or 1.0 % in pet.). Five patients also had positive reactions to other dyes such as aminophenol, para-toluene diamine, disperse orange and yellow and four patients reacted to benzocaine. These were interpreted as cross-reactions. The time from sensitization by the black henna tattoo to the onset of allergic contact dermatitis after hair dyeing was an average of 6.2 years.
The most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis after black henna tattoos is PPD. Both the long skin contact and the high concentrations of PPD increase the risk of sensitization. Allergic contact dermatitis may be followed by post-inflammatory hyper- or hypopigmentation, scarring and lifelong sensitization, which can have occupational impact, especially for hair dressers and cosmeticians.
Figures in this publication
Available from: Ertugrul Kaya
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is highly popular among children and young adults to have temporary henna tattoos on their bodies in different colors and figures. Henna is a greenish natural powder obtained from the flowers and dry leaves of Lawsonia alba plant and its allergenicity is very low. Henna is also used in combination with other coloring substances such as para-phenylenediamine in order to darken the color and create a permanent tattoo effect. Para-phenylenediamine is a substance with high allergenicity potential and may cause serious allergic reactions. Here, we aimed to draw attention to the potential harms of para-phenylenediamine containing temporary tattoos by presenting a child patient who developed allergic contact dermatitis after having a scorpion-shaped temporary tattoo on his forearm.
Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology 08/2012; 32(2). DOI:10.3109/15569527.2012.709570 · 1.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An objective of this article is a review of contemporary knowledge on various environmental factors, that influence prevalence and course of allergic diseases, like asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and also contact dermatitis. Surrounding climate may directly influence each patient, but also determines type of flora and fauna within particular geographical regions and thus affects sources of airborne and food allergens. Epidemiological studies suggest that there is a strong relationship between air pollution and development and exacerbation of asthma and other allergic diseases - main attention has been concentrated on gaseous materials such as ozone (O(3)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), as well as particulate matter (PM), generated by car traffic and industry. Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) has the ability to bind proteins and may serve as a potential carrier of allergens, penetrating deep into respiratory tract. Among the most extensively studied environmental factors influencing allergy are airborne allergens: dust mites, pollens, fungi and animal dander. Foods may elicit both true IgE-mediated allergy and also various non-immunological reactions, associated with direct release of mediators or toxic activity. It has been estimated, that over 85 000 chemicals are recognized in the human environment and they may act as contact allergens or irritants, causing allergic or non-allergic contact dermatitis. Among them metals, fragrances, preservatives, botanicals and paraphenylenediamine are considered as the most significant. Infections have always been associated with etiopathogenesis of allergic diseases and they may contribute to exacerbation of their course.
Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine: AAEM 09/2012; 19(3):475-81. · 1.13 Impact Factor
Available from: Rosemary Nixon
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. Hairdressers constitute one of the largest occupational groups attending our occupational dermatology clinic in Melbourne, Australia. Objectives. To perform a retrospective review of the clinical assessments of hairdressers and trainee hairdressers attending our clinic, including patch testing results. Patients/materials/methods. We used our clinic database to identify trainee and qualified hairdressers who had attended our occupational dermatology clinic between January 1993 and December 2010. Results. One hundred and sixty-four hairdressers and hairdressing apprentices were identified. One hundred and fifty-seven had a diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD), with allergic contact dermatitis being the primary diagnosis in 71% and irritant contact dermatitis in 20%. Involvement of more than one body part was suggestive of allergic contact dermatitis (p = 0.05). Sixty-five per cent of participants were found to have more than one factor contributing to their OCD. Allergic contact dermatitis was more common in apprentices than in qualified hairdressers. Ammonium persulfate, p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine and glyceryl monothioglycolate were the most common occupational allergens. Nickel allergy was seen in 31% of hairdressers, but considered to be occupationally relevant in only 3%. Conclusions. Multiple sensitizations and multiple factors contributing to OCD in hairdressers are common. More needs to be done to prevent the development of OCD in hairdressers in our geographical region.
Contact Dermatitis 04/2013; 68(5). DOI:10.1111/cod.12016 · 3.75 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.