Article

ECMO centers and mortality from influenza A(H1N1).

JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 30.39). 02/2012; 307(5):454; author reply 454-5. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2012.57
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: In March 2009, novel 2009 influenza A(H1N1) was first reported in the southwestern United States and Mexico. The population and health care system in Mexico City experienced the first and greatest early burden of critical illness. To describe baseline characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of consecutive critically ill patients in Mexico hospitals that treated the majority of such patients with confirmed, probable, or suspected 2009 influenza A(H1N1). Observational study of 58 critically ill patients with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) at 6 hospitals between March 24 and June 1, 2009. Demographic data, symptoms, comorbid conditions, illness progression, treatments, and clinical outcomes were collected using a piloted case report form. The primary outcome measure was mortality. Secondary outcomes included rate of 2009 influenza (A)H1N1-related critical illness and mechanical ventilation as well as intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay. Critical illness occurred in 58 of 899 patients (6.5%) admitted to the hospital with confirmed, probable, or suspected 2009 influenza (A)H1N1. Patients were young (median, 44.0 [range, 10-83] years); all presented with fever and all but 1 with respiratory symptoms. Few patients had comorbid respiratory disorders, but 21 (36%) were obese. Time from hospital to ICU admission was short (median, 1 day [interquartile range {IQR}, 0-3 days]), and all patients but 2 received mechanical ventilation for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and refractory hypoxemia (median day 1 ratio of Pao(2) to fraction of inspired oxygen, 83 [IQR, 59-145] mm Hg). By 60 days, 24 patients had died (41.4%; 95% confidence interval, 28.9%-55.0%). Patients who died had greater initial severity of illness, worse hypoxemia, higher creatine kinase levels, higher creatinine levels, and ongoing organ dysfunction. After adjusting for a reduced opportunity of patients dying early to receive neuraminidase inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitor treatment (vs no treatment) was associated with improved survival (odds ratio, 8.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-62.8). Critical illness from 2009 influenza A(H1N1) in Mexico occurred in young individuals, was associated with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and shock, and had a high case-fatality rate.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 10/2009; 302(17):1880-7. DOI:10.1001/jama.2009.1536 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Between March and July 2009, the largest number of confirmed cases of 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection occurred in North America. To describe characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of critically ill patients in Canada with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection. A prospective observational study of 168 critically ill patients with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection in 38 adult and pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) in Canada between April 16 and August 12, 2009. The primary outcome measures were 28-day and 90-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included frequency and duration of mechanical ventilation and duration of ICU stay. Critical illness occurred in 215 patients with confirmed (n = 162), probable (n = 6), or suspected (n = 47) community-acquired 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection. Among the 168 patients with confirmed or probable 2009 influenza A(H1N1), the mean (SD) age was 32.3 (21.4) years; 113 were female (67.3%) and 50 were children (29.8%). Overall mortality among critically ill patients at 28 days was 14.3% (95% confidence interval, 9.5%-20.7%). There were 43 patients who were aboriginal Canadians (25.6%). The median time from symptom onset to hospital admission was 4 days (interquartile range [IQR], 2-7 days) and from hospitalization to ICU admission was 1 day (IQR, 0-2 days). Shock and nonpulmonary acute organ dysfunction was common (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment mean [SD] score of 6.8 [3.6] on day 1). Neuraminidase inhibitors were administered to 152 patients (90.5%). All patients were severely hypoxemic (mean [SD] ratio of Pao(2) to fraction of inspired oxygen [Fio(2)] of 147 [128] mm Hg) at ICU admission. Mechanical ventilation was received by 136 patients (81.0%). The median duration of ventilation was 12 days (IQR, 6-20 days) and ICU stay was 12 days (IQR, 5-20 days). Lung rescue therapies included neuromuscular blockade (28% of patients), inhaled nitric oxide (13.7%), high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (11.9%), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (4.2%), and prone positioning ventilation (3.0%). Overall mortality among critically ill patients at 90 days was 17.3% (95% confidence interval, 12.0%-24.0%; n = 29). Critical illness due to 2009 influenza A(H1N1) in Canada occurred rapidly after hospital admission, often in young adults, and was associated with severe hypoxemia, multisystem organ failure, a requirement for prolonged mechanical ventilation, and the frequent use of rescue therapies.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 10/2009; 302(17):1872-9. DOI:10.1001/jama.2009.1496 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can support gas exchange in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but its role has remained controversial. ECMO was used to treat patients with ARDS during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. To compare the hospital mortality of patients with H1N1-related ARDS referred, accepted, and transferred for ECMO with matched patients who were not referred for ECMO. A cohort study in which ECMO-referred patients were defined as all patients with H1N1-related ARDS who were referred, accepted, and transferred to 1 of the 4 adult ECMO centers in the United Kingdom during the H1N1 pandemic in winter 2009-2010. The ECMO-referred patients and the non-ECMO-referred patients were matched using data from a concurrent, longitudinal cohort study (Swine Flu Triage study) of critically ill patients with suspected or confirmed H1N1. Detailed demographic, physiological, and comorbidity data were used in 3 different matching techniques (individual matching, propensity score matching, and GenMatch matching). Survival to hospital discharge analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Of 80 ECMO-referred patients, 69 received ECMO (86.3%) and 22 died (27.5%) prior to discharge from the hospital. From a pool of 1756 patients, there were 59 matched pairs of ECMO-referred patients and non-ECMO-referred patients identified using individual matching, 75 matched pairs identified using propensity score matching, and 75 matched pairs identified using GenMatch matching. The hospital mortality rate was 23.7% for ECMO-referred patients vs 52.5% for non-ECMO-referred patients (relative risk [RR], 0.45 [95% CI, 0.26-0.79]; P = .006) when individual matching was used; 24.0% vs 46.7%, respectively (RR, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.31-0.81]; P = .008) when propensity score matching was used; and 24.0% vs 50.7%, respectively (RR, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.31-0.72]; P = .001) when GenMatch matching was used. The results were robust to sensitivity analyses, including amending the inclusion criteria and restricting the location where the non-ECMO-referred patients were treated. For patients with H1N1-related ARDS, referral and transfer to an ECMO center was associated with lower hospital mortality compared with matched non-ECMO-referred patients.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 10/2011; 306(15):1659-68. DOI:10.1001/jama.2011.1471 · 30.39 Impact Factor