Gold-catalysed oxyarylation of styrenes and mono- and gem-disubstituted olefins facilitated by an iodine(III) oxidant.
ABSTRACT 1-Hydroxy-1,2-benziodoxol-3(1H)-one (IBA) is an efficient terminal oxidant for gold-catalysed, three-component oxyarylation reactions. The use of this iodine(III) reagent expands the scope of oxyarylation to include styrenes and gem-disubstituted olefins, substrates that are incompatible with the previously reported Selectfluor-based methodology. Diverse arylsilane coupling partners can be employed, and in benzotrifluoride, homocoupling is substantially reduced. In addition, the IBA-derived co-products can be recovered and recycled.
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ABSTRACT: We present a detailed study of the mechanism for oxidative heteroarylation, based on DFT calculations and experimental observations. We propose binuclear Au(II)-Au(II) complexes to be key intermediates in the mechanism for gold catalyzed oxidative heteroarylation. The reaction is thought to proceed via a gold redox cycle involving initial oxidation of Au(I) to binuclear Au(II)-Au(II) complexes by Selectfluor, followed by heteroauration and reductive elimination. While it is tempting to invoke a transmetalation/reductive elimination mechanism similar to that proposed for other transition metal complexes, experimental and DFT studies suggest that the key C-C bond forming reaction occurs via a bimolecular reductive elimination process (devoid of transmetalation). In addition, the stereochemistry of the elimination step was determined experimentally to proceed with complete retention. Ligand and halide effects played an important role in the development and optimization of the catalyst; our data provides an explanation for the ligand effects observed experimentally, useful for future catalyst development. Cyclic voltammetry data is presented that supports redox synergy of the Au···Au aurophilic interaction. The monometallic reductive elimination from mononuclear Au(III) complexes is also studied from which we can predict a ~15 kcal/mol advantage for bimetallic reductive elimination.Journal of the American Chemical Society 08/2011; 133(36):14293-300. · 10.68 Impact Factor
- Chemical Reviews 09/1996; 96(5):1737-1756. · 41.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Highly stereoselective Au(I)-catalyzed pyrrole additions to enantioenriched allenes afford a unique entry to optically active heterocycles. Asymmetric quaternary carbons can be installed with concurrent heterocycle annulation utilizing this methodology. The enantioenriched allenes are conveniently obtained by catalytic asymmetric acyl halide-aldehyde cyclocondensations and SN2' ring opening of the resulting enantioenriched beta-lactones. An enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-rhazinilam highlights the potential utility of this reaction technology in target-oriented synthesis.Journal of the American Chemical Society 09/2006; 128(32):10352-3. · 10.68 Impact Factor