Manipulation of triose phosphate/phosphate translocator and cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, the key components in photosynthetic sucrose synthesis, enhances the source capacity of transgenic Arabidopsis plants.
ABSTRACT Photoassimilated carbons are converted to sucrose in green plant leaves and distributed to non-phototropic tissues to provide carbon and energy. In photosynthetic sucrose biosynthesis, the chloroplast envelope triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (TPT) and cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (cFBPase) are key components in photosynthetic sucrose biosynthesis. The simultaneous overexpression of TPT and cFBPase was utilized to increase the source capacity of Arabidopsis. The TPT and cFBPase overexpression lines exhibited enhanced growth with larger rosette sizes and increased fresh weights compared with wild-type (WT) plants. The simultaneous overexpression of TPT and cFBPase resulted in enhanced photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation rates in moderate and elevated light conditions. During the phototropic period, the soluble sugar (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) levels in the leaves of these transgenic lines were also higher than those of the WT plants. These results suggest that the simultaneous overexpression of TPT and cFBPase enhances source capacity and consequently leads to growth enhancement in transgenic plants.
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ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that atmospheric CO2 concentration and frequency of cloud cover will increase in future. It remains unclear, however, how elevated CO2 influences photosynthesis under complex clear versus cloudy sky conditions. Accordingly, diurnal changes in photosynthetic responses among beech trees grown at ambient (AC) and doubled (EC) CO2 concentrations were studied under contrasting sky conditions. EC stimulated the daily sum of fixed CO2 and light use efficiency under clear sky. Meanwhile, both these parameters were reduced under cloudy sky as compared with AC treatment. Reduction in photosynthesis rate under cloudy sky was particularly associated with EC-stimulated, xanthophyll-dependent thermal dissipation of absorbed light energy. Under clear sky, a pronounced afternoon depression of CO2 assimilation rate was found in sun-adapted leaves under EC compared with AC conditions. This was caused in particular by stomata closure mediated by vapour pressure deficit.Environmental Pollution 12/2013; 185C:271-280. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rice provides about half of the calories consumed in Asian countries, but its productivity is often reduced by drought, especially when grown under rain-fed conditions. Cultivars with increased drought tolerance have been bred over centuries. Slow selection for drought tolerance on the basis of phenotypic traits may be accelerated by using molecular markers identified through expression and metabolic profiling. Previously, we identified 46 candidate genes with significant genotype × environment interaction in an expression profiling study on four cultivars with contrasting drought tolerance. These potential markers and in addition GC-MS quantified metabolites were tested in 21 cultivars from both indica and japonica background that varied in drought tolerance. Leaf blades were sampled from this population of cultivars grown under control or long-term drought condition and subjected to expression analysis by qRT-PCR and metabolite profiling. Under drought stress, metabolite levels correlated mainly negatively with performance parameters, but eight metabolites correlated positively. For 28 genes, a significant correlation between expression level and performance under drought was confirmed. Negative correlations were predominant. Among those with significant positive correlation was the gene coding for a cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. This enzyme catalyzes a highly regulated step in C-metabolism. The metabolic and transcript marker candidates for drought tolerance were identified in a highly diverse population of cultivars. Thus, these markers may be used to select for tolerance in a wide range of rice germplasms.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63637. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plants assimilate carbon dioxide during photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Assimilated carbon is subsequently allocated throughout the plant. Generally, two types of organs can be distinguished, mature green source leaves as net photoassimilate exporters, and net importers, the sinks, e.g., roots, flowers, small leaves, and storage organs like tubers. Within these organs, different tissue types developed according to their respective function, and cells of either tissue type are highly compartmentalized. Photoassimilates are allocated to distinct compartments of these tissues in all organs, requiring a set of metabolite transporters mediating this intercompartmental transfer. The general route of photoassimilates can be briefly described as follows. Upon fixation of carbon dioxide in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells, triose phosphates either enter the cytosol for mainly sucrose formation or remain in the stroma to form transiently stored starch which is degraded during the night and enters the cytosol as maltose or glucose to be further metabolized to sucrose. In both cases, sucrose enters the phloem for long distance transport or is transiently stored in the vacuole, or can be degraded to hexoses which also can be stored in the vacuole. In the majority of plant species, sucrose is actively loaded into the phloem via the apoplast. Following long distance transport, it is released into sink organs, where it enters cells as source of carbon and energy. In storage organs, sucrose can be stored, or carbon derived from sucrose can be stored as starch in plastids, or as oil in oil bodies, or - in combination with nitrogen - as protein in protein storage vacuoles and protein bodies. Here, we focus on transport proteins known for either of these steps, and discuss the implications for yield increase in plants upon genetic engineering of respective transporters.Frontiers in Plant Science 01/2013; 4:231. · 3.60 Impact Factor