Genome gating in tailed bacteriophage capsids.
ABSTRACT Tailed bacteriophages use a portal system for genome entry and exit from viral capsids. Here, we review the mechanisms how these movements are controlled by the genome gatekeeper that assembles at the portal structure. Phage DNA is packaged at high pressure inside the viral capsid by a powerful motor. The viral genome is translocated through the central channel of the portal protein found at a single vertex of the capsid. Packaging is normally terminated by endonucleolytic cleavage of the substrate DNA followed by disassembly of the packaging motor and closure of the portal system, preventing leakage of the viral genome. This can be achieved either by conformational changes in the portal protein or by sequential addition of proteins that extend the portal channel (adaptors) and physically close it preventing DNA exit (stoppers). The resulting connector structure provides the interface for assembly of short tails (podoviruses) or for attachment of preformed long tails (siphoviruses and myoviruses). The connector maintains the viral DNA correctly positioned for ejection that is triggered by interaction of the phage particle with bacterial receptors. Recent exciting advances are providing new molecular insights on the mechanisms that ensure precise coordination of these critical steps required both for stable viral genome packaging and for its efficient release to initiate infection.
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ABSTRACT: This is the first report on a complete genome sequence and biological characterization of the phage that infects Arthrobacter. A novel virus vB_ArS-ArV2 (ArV2) was isolated from soil using Arthrobacter sp. 68b strain for phage propagation. Based on transmission electron microscopy, ArV2 belongs to the family Siphoviridae and has an isometric head (,63 nm in diameter) with a non-contractile flexible tail (,194610 nm) and six short tail fibers. ArV2 possesses a linear, double-stranded DNA genome (37,372 bp) with a G+C content of 62.73%. The genome contains 68 ORFs yet encodes no tRNA genes. A total of 28 ArV2 ORFs have no known functions and lack any reliable database matches. Proteomic analysis led to the experimental identification of 14 virion proteins, including 9 that were predicted by bioinformatics approaches. Comparative phylogenetic analysis, based on the amino acid sequence alignment of conserved proteins, set ArV2 apart from other siphoviruses. The data presented here will help to advance our understanding of Arthrobacter phage population and will extend our knowledge about the interaction between this particular host and its phages. Citation: Š imoliu ¯ nas E, Kaliniene L, Stasilo M, Truncaite ˙ L, Zajančkauskaite ˙ A, et al. (2014) Isolation and Characterization of vB_ArS-ArV2 – First Arthrobacter sp. Infecting Bacteriophage with Completely Sequenced Genome. PLoS ONE 9(10): e111230. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111230 Copyright: ß 2014 Š imoliu ¯ nas et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. The complete genome sequence of Arthrobacter bacteriophage ArV2 was deposited in the EMBL nucleotide sequence database under accession number KF692088. Funding: This research was funded by a grant (No. MIP-042/2012) from the Research Council of Lithuania. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.PLoS ONE 10/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Relatively few phages (<10) of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) have been described. S. epidermidis phage vB_SepS_SEP9 is a siphovirus with a unique morphology as a staphylococcal phage, possessing a very long tail. Its genome is unique and unrelated to any phage genomes deposited in public databases. It appears to encode a nonfunctional integrase. Due to the not having a recognizable lysogeny module, the phage is unable lysogenize. The genome comprises 129 coding sequences (CDS), 46 of which have an assigned function and 59 are unique. Its unique morphology and genome led to the proposal of the establishment of a new Siphoviridae genus named “Sep9likevirus”.Research in Microbiology 10/2014; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A unique feature of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa giant phage phiKZ is its way of genome packaging onto a spool-like protein structure, the inner body. Until recently, no similar structures have been detected in other phages. We have studied DNA packaging in P. aeruginosa phages EL and Lin68 using cryo-electron microscopy and revealed the presence of inner bodies. The shape and positioning of the inner body and the density of the DNA packaging in EL are different from those found in phiKZ and Lin68. This internal organization explains how the shorter EL genome is packed into a large EL capsid, which has the same external dimensions as the capsids of phiKZ and Lin68. The similarity in the structural organization in EL and other phiKZ-like phages indicates that EL is phylogenetically related to other phiKZ-like phages, and, despite the lack of detectable DNA homology, EL, phiKZ, and Lin68 descend from a common ancestor.Virology 09/2014; 468-470C:472-478. · 3.28 Impact Factor