Waist circumference is a sensitive screening tool for assessment of metabolic syndrome risk in children treated with second-generation antipsychotics
To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in second-generation antipsychotic (SGA)-treated and SGA-naive children; and to explore the utility of clinical markers, such as waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), as screening tools for MetS.
Subjects were prospectively recruited from the Psychiatry Emergency Unit at British Columbia Children's Hospital. As part of a quality-assurance project, a metabolic monitoring protocol was implemented, including collection of anthropomorphic and laboratory data.
From January 2008 to February 2010, there were 117 SGA-treated and 217 SGA-naive children recruited. The overall prevalence of MetS was 19.0% (16/84; median treatment duration = 14 months) in SGA-treated and 0.8% (1/127) in SGA-naive children (OR 29.7; 95% CI 3.85 to 228.40, P < 0.001), with an increased prevalence of all components except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), respectively: elevated WC (40.7% and 10.1%; P < 0.001); hypertriglyceridemia (33.7% and 18.8%; P = 0.01); impaired fasting glucose (12.5% and 0.7%; P = 0.005); and elevated blood pressure (41.2% and 16.5%; P < 0.001). SGA treatment was the strongest predictor of MetS (OR 19.2; 95% CI 2.30 to 160.44, P = 0.006) followed by male sex (OR 5.7; 95% CI 1.08 to 30.62, P = 0.04). Presence of abdominal obesity was more sensitive (92.9%) than BMI (68.8%), while fasting glucose of 5.6 mmol/L or more and HDL-C of 1.03 mmol/L or less were most specific (94.1%) in correctly identifying MetS.
SGA treatment confers a significantly increased risk for MetS over the long term. WC measurement is a simple and sensitive screening tool for determining MetS risk in SGA-treated children. These data highlight the dangers of SGA treatment and the importance of standardized metabolic monitoring using sex- and age-adjusted tables in this population.
Available from: PubMed Central
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly being used to treat children with a variety of psychiatric illnesses. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is a side-effect of SGA-treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional study and assessed the association of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T variant with features of MetS in SGA-treated (n=105) and SGA-naïve (n=112) children. We targeted the MTHFR C677T variant, because it is associated with risk for cardiovascular disease, and features of MetS in adults without psychiatric illness. MetS in children is based on the presence of any three of the following: waist circumference ≥ 90th percentile for age and sex; plasma triglyceride ≥ 1.24 mmol l(-1); plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ≤ 1.03 mmol l(-1); systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90th percentile for age, sex, and height; and fasting glucose ≥ 5.6 mmol l(-1). We found that 15% of SGA-treated children had MetS compared with 2% of SGA-naïve children (OR 8.113, P<0.05). No effect of the MTHFR C677T variant on psychiatric diagnosis was observed. The MTHFR 677T allele was associated (P<0.05) with MetS (OR 5.75, 95% CI= 1.18-28.12) in SGA-treated children. Models adjusted for duration of SGA treatment, ethnicity, sex, age and use of other medications revealed a positive relationship between the MTHFR 677T allele and diastolic blood pressure Z-scores (P=0.001) and fasting plasma glucose (P<0.05) in SGA-treated children. These findings illustrate the high prevalence of MetS in SGA-treated children and suggest metabolic alterations associated with the MTHFR C677T variant may have a role in the development of MetS features in SGA-treated children.
Translational Psychiatry 02/2012; 2(1):e71. DOI:10.1038/tp.2011.68 · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine whether implementation of a metabolic monitoring training program (MMTP) in an urban community-based setting improved monitoring in children treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and changed prescription rates of SGAs to children. Method: The MMTP was implemented in the Vancouver Coastal Health Child and Youth Mental Health Teams (CYMHTs) on January 1, 2009. A retrospective review of paper charts and electronic records for children seen at the CYMHTs from September 1, 2007, to May 1, 2010, was performed to collect the following data: age, sex, foster care, immigrant status, Axis I diagnosis, and medications. In SGA-treated children, anthropometric measurements and blood work completed at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months were also collected. Results: Among the 1114 children seen pre-MMTP and 1262 children seen post-MMTP implementation, 174 (15.4%) and 81 (6.4%), respectively, were SGA-treated (P < 0.001). Among the SGA-treated children seen at the CYMHTs after MMTP implementation, 38.3% had a copy of the MMTP in their paper chart. Metabolic monitoring increased by up to 40% at baseline (P < 0.01), 20% at 3 (P < 0.01) and 6 months (P < 0.01), and 18% at 12 months after MMTP implementation. Conclusions: Implementation of an MMTP was associated with significantly improved monitoring rates of anthropometric and blood work parameters at baseline and the 3- and 6-month time points, with a trend for improvement at the 12-month time point, in SGA-treated children cared for in urban community mental health clinics. In addition, a 56% decrease in SGA prescriptions was observed following MMTP implementation in this population.
Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie 05/2012; 57(5):292-9. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article is a review of several of the most concerning side effects of psychotropic medications in children and adolescents. An emphasis is placed on review of the prevalence, presentation, monitoring, and evidence-based management of these side effects.
Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America 10/2012; 21(4):713-38. DOI:10.1016/j.chc.2012.07.012 · 2.88 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.