Surface microdialysis sampling: a new approach described in a liver ischaemia model.
ABSTRACT We recently have shown that samples from microdialysis (MD) probes placed on the surface of the heart reflect metabolic events in the myocardium. This new interesting observation challenges us to consider whether surface application of MD applies to other parenchymatous organs and their surfaces. In 13 anesthetized pigs, transient liver ischaemia was achieved by occlusion of arterial and venous inflow to the liver. Two probes on liver surface and two in parenchyma were perfused with a flow rate of 1 μl per min (n = 13). An identical set-up was used for probes with a flow rate of 2 μl per min (n = 9). Samples were collected for every 15-min period during 60 min of baseline, 45 min of ischaemia and 60 min of reperfusion. Lactate, glucose, pyruvate and glycerol were analysed in MD samples. We focused on relative changes in the present study. There was a strong agreement in relative lactate and glucose levels between probes placed on liver surface and those on parenchyma. No significant differences in relative changes in lactate and glucose levels were seen between samples from surface probes and probes in liver parenchyma during equilibration, baseline, ischaemia or reperfusion with a flow rate of 1 μl per min. MD sampling applied on the liver surface is a new application area for the MD technique and may be used to monitor liver metabolism during both physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
Article: Human microdialysis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Microdialysis has been used extensively in animal studies for decades and in human pharmacokinetic studies for about 10 years. Microdialysis is based on the passive diffusion of a compound along its concentration gradient from the tissue through the membrane into the dialysate. Microdialysis samples from the interstitial space which is a defined, anatomical compartment; there is no net loss of body fluid; the sample is "purified" and no enzymatic degradation takes place because proteins do not pass through the probe membrane into the dialysate; microdialysis data relate to the intact molecule; time resolution is high compared to biopsy and skin blister techniques; radioabelling or induction of a magnetic response is not needed; microdialysis is also an alternative method to determine protein binding of a compound in vivo; microdialysis can readily be set up in clinical research units without expensive infrastructure. Microdialysis has been used to measure tissue concentrations of endogenous compounds and to investigate the tissue penetration of drugs in a variety of tissues in humans in vivo in both healthy volunteers and patients. Microdialysis data have also been used in PK-PD modelling and to obtain concentration-response relationships locally in tissues in vivo. There are also studies combining microdialysis with imaging techniques, e.g. PET. Microdialysis data may be used in early studies to select the appropriate compound, to optimise dosing regimens and to investigate the kinetic and dynamic consequences in the tissues of drug-drug and drug-disease interactions. Microdialysis can also be used in late phase studies to provide tissue concentration data in support of therapeutic efficacy trials or to create a niche for an already marketed drug. FDA and CPMP documents emphasise the value and importance of human tissue drug concentration data and support the use of microdialysis in humans to obtain such information. Microdialysis can satisfy regulatory requirements by providing data on drug concentrations in a well-defined anatomical tissue compartment at or close to the effect target site. Microdialysis is a versatile technique because of its multifaceted utility, low cost, ease of use, adaptability to different types of compounds and its feasibility for a number of organs and tissues. Equipment and probes for use in various organs have been commercially available for years.Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 07/2002; 3(2):165-78. · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ischemia-reperfusion injury induced by the Pringle maneuver is a well-known problem after liver surgery. The aim of this study was to monitor metabolic changes in the pig liver during warm ischemia and the following reperfusion preceded by ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Eight Landrace pigs underwent laparotomy. Two microdialysis catheters were inserted in the liver, one in the left lobe and another in the right lobe. A reference catheter was inserted in the right biceps femoris muscle. Microdialysis samples were collected every 30 min during the study. After 2 h of baseline measurement, IPC was performed by subjecting pigs to 10 min of ischemia, followed by 10 min of reperfusion. Total ischemia for 60 min was followed by 3 h of reperfusion. The samples were analyzed for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and glycerol. Blood samples were drawn three times to determine standard liver parameters. All parameters remained stable during baseline. Glycerol and glucose levels increased significantly during ischemia, followed by a decrease from the start of reperfusion. During the ischemic period, lactate levels increased significantly and decreased during reperfusion. The lactate-pyruvate ratio increased significantly during ischemia and decreased rapidly during reperfusion. Only minor changes were observed in standard liver parameters. The present study demonstrated profound metabolic changes before, during, and after warm liver ischemia under the influence of IPC. Compared with a similar study without IPC, the metabolic changes seem to be unaffected by preconditioning.Hepatology International 04/2009; 3(1):310-5. · 2.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A large degree of variability for batched analysis of serially collected microdialysis samples measured with the CMA 600 analyser has been described. This study was designed to identify sources of variability related to sample handling. Standard concentrations of four solutes were placed in microdialysis vials and then stored and analysed at intervals. Results were analysed for variability related to vial and cap type, duration and temperature of storage, centrifugation and re-analysis. The main results were that centrifugation of samples reduced variability. When a batch of 24 samples was analysed, the use of crimp caps reduced evaporation. Samples in glass vials with crimp caps could be stored in a refrigerator for up to 14 days without large variability in concentration compared to plastic vials which demonstrated variability already when stored for more than 1 day. We conclude that variability in microdialysis results can occur in relation to storage and analysis routines if routines are not optimised concerning evaporation. Centrifugation before analyses, glass vials with crimp caps even during frozen storage, and attention to minimal times for samples to be uncapped during analysis all contribute to minimise variability in the handling and analysis of microdialysis samples.Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 09/2008; 48(3):940-5. · 2.95 Impact Factor