Knowledge, Attitude and Preventive Practices of women for breast cancer in the Educational Institutions of Lahore, Pakistan

Surgical Division, INMOL, Lahore, Pakistan.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP (Impact Factor: 2.51). 01/2011; 12(9):2419-24.
Source: PubMed


Breast cancer incidence rates, pattern of presentation and survival rates vary worldwide. High incidence, advanced stage disease presentation and low survival rates have been reported from Pakistan. Lack of awareness and screening facilities along with poor socioeconomic status are the main causes. A survey based upon multiple choice questionnaires was conducted during an awareness campaign in women educational institutions of Lahore, to assess the baseline knowledge, attitude towards breast self examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and source of information used by them. 1155 filled questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS version 12. The majority (83.7%) of the respondents were <30 years old, 60% had >10 and 31.5% had <14 years of education. Only 27% had "good" while 14% had "poor" and 59% had "fair" knowledge scores about breast cancer. Television was the most commonly cited source of information but was associated with lower knowledge score. The knowledge scores and practice of BSE had a positive association with education level. The respondents had better knowledge of life time risk and association of early diagnosis with better chances of cure, but worse knowledge of risk factors as compared to women in educational institutions of other countries. Generally the respondents of present study had low level of knowledge of breast cancer. Properly designed awareness campaign on television and in educational institutions can be effective to raise the knowledge level, the best long term strategy for this purpose.

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Available from: Saqib Mahmood, Jan 23, 2014
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    • "This is in agreement with the study done in Delhi (Somdatta, 2008) where 80% of women reported television as one of the most important sources of information for the BC awareness. Study done in educational institute of Lahore, Pakistan also reported television (14%) and hearsay (17%) as most common sources of information (Khokher, 2011). Similar evidence exists about electronic media and television being the most important sources of information on BC (Montazeri et al., 2010; Ravichandran et al., 2010; Yoo et al., 2012) followed by relatives and friends for less educated women (Hatefnia et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: To assess women’s awareness from diverse sections of society in Delhi regarding various aspects of breast cancer (BC) – perceptions, signs and symptoms, risk factors, prevention, screening and treatment. Materials and Methods: Community-level survey was undertaken in association with the Indian Cancer Society (ICS), Delhi during May 2013-March 2014. Women attending BC awareness workshops by ICS were given self-administered questionnaires before the workshop in the local language to assess BC literacy. Information provided by 2017 women was converted into awareness scores (aware=1) for analysis using SPSS. Awareness scores were dichotomized with median score=19 as cut off, create more aware and less aware categories. Bivariate and multivariate analysis provided P-values, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Broadly, 53.4% women were aware about various aspects of BC. Notably, 49.1% women believed that BC was incurable and 73.9% women believed pain to be an initial BC symptom. Only 34.9% women performed breast self examination (BSE) and 6.9% women had undergone clinical breast-examination / mammography. 40.5% women had higher awareness (awareness score > median score of 19), which was associated with education [graduates (OR=2.31; 95%CI=1.78, 3.16), post-graduates (OR=7.06; 95%CI=4.14, 12.05) compared to ≤ high school] and socio-economic status (SES) [low-middle (OR=4.20; 95%CI=2.72, 6.49), middle (OR=6.00; 95%CI=3.82, 9.42) and upper (OR=6.97; 95%CI=4.10, 11.84) compared to low SES]. Conclusions: BC awareness of women in Delhi was suboptimal and was associated with low SES and education. Awareness must be drastically increased via community outreach and use of media as a first step in the fight against BC.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 07/2015; 16(13):5243-5251. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5243 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    • "Mammography, Breast Self-Examination (BSE), and Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) are some of the methods for screening of the BC (Fouladi et al., 2013). Previous studies have identified a variety of barriers to BC screening, such as poor interactions with doctors and the screening procedure itself (such as pain and discomfort) (Al-Naggar 2012), Anxiety, fear of BC diagnosis, lack of awareness relating to BC (Khokher et al., 2011) and long geographical distance to the screening center were other barriers. Many of these studies were done using qualitative methods (Abdullah et al., 2013; Vithana et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: The principal aim of health service providers in the field of breast cancer is to detect and treat lesions at an appropriate time. Therefore, identification of barriers to screening can be very helpful. The present study aimed to systematically review the qualitative studies for extracting and reporting the barriers of screening for breast cancer from the womans perspective. In this systematic review; Pubmed, Google Scholar, Ovid Scopus, Cochrane Library, Iranmedex, and SID were searched using the keywords: screening barriers, cancer, qualitative studies, breast and their Persian equivalents, and the needed data were extracted and analyzed using an extraction table. To assess the quality of the studies, the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool was used. From 2,134 related articles that were found, 21 articles were eventually included in the study. The most important barriers from the point of view of 1,084 women were lack of knowledge, access barriers (financial, geographical, cultural), fear (of results and pain), performance of service providers, women's beliefs, procrastination of screening, embarrassment, long wait for getting an appointment, language problems, and previous negative experiences. Articles' assessment score was 68.9. Increasing women's knowledge, reducing the costs of screening services, cultural promotion for screening, presenting less painful methods, changing beliefs of health service providers, provision of privacy for giving service, decreasing the waiting time, and providing high quality services in a respectful manner can be effective ways to increase breast cancer screening.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 04/2015; 16(8):3463-71. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.8.3463 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition smoking, reduced physical activity and consumption of highly processed and calorie-rich food are the major causes of cancer. Breast, Colorectal, lung and prostate cancer are most frequently spreading diseases world widely as well as in Pakistan [2]. It is reported that Pakistani population have the highest rate of breast cancer among any Asian population (except Jews in Israel) and also have the highest rates of ovarian cancer of all over the world [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Side-effects associated with the cancer chemotherapy limit the scope of chemotherapeutic drugs and no data was available about these side effects in Pakistan. Moreover starvation based diffe-rential chemotherapy has been proved to greatly reduce the side effects of chemotherapy de-pending on starvation time. The current study was conducted to survey the common side effects of the chemotherapeutic drugs and the role of starvation to reduce them. The study included total 100 subjects with multiple carcinomas. A comprehensive questionnaire about starvation inquiry, chemotherapy side effects and their basic information was filled by interviewers as told by pa-tients. There were 48% patients with breast cancer and 11% with uterine cancer. Out of these pa-tients 30%, 28%, 9% and 9% patients were agreed to starve for 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours respec-tively. The survey regarding the side effects of chemotherapy showed that 43% patients were suf-fering from headache, fatigue 90%, weakness 95%, hair loss 76%, nausea 77%, vomiting 75%, di-arrhea 31%, abdominal cramps 40%, mouth sores 47%, dry mouth 74%, memory impairment 14% and numbness 49%. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Pakistan. Only 18% of the total patients were agreed to starve for more than one day. Chemotherapy-associated side effects vary greatly and it does not depend upon cancer type. But these side effects depend on multiple factors such as the type and dose of chemotherapeutic drug, patient's health status and stage of cancer.
    Journal of Cancer Therapy 01/2014; 5(5):817-822. DOI:10.4236/jct.2014.58089
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