Assessment of exposure to drugs of abuse during pregnancy by hair analysis in a Mediterranean island.
ABSTRACT This study aims to estimate the prevalence of drug use by pregnant women living in Ibiza, using structured interviews and biomarkers in maternal hair. In addition, the potentially detrimental effects of maternal drug abuse on their newborns were investigated. Ibiza has a large international night-life resort associated with clubs, music and use of recreational drugs.
Hair samples were collected prospectively from January to March 2010 from a cohort of consecutive mothers after giving birth in the Hospital Can Misses in Ibiza.
Opiates, cocaine, cannabis, methadone, amphetamines, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and their metabolites were detected in a 3-cm-long proximal segment of maternal hair corresponding to the last trimester of pregnancy by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (n = 107). Data on socio-demographic characteristics and on tobacco, alcohol, drugs of prescription and drugs of abuse consumption during pregnancy were collected using a structured questionnaire.
Hair analysis showed an overall 16% positivity for drugs of abuse in the third trimester of pregnancy, with a specific prevalence of cannabis, cocaine, MDMA and opiates use of 10.3, 6.4, 0.9 and 0%, respectively. In the questionnaires, only 1.9% of mothers declared using drugs of abuse during pregnancy. Gestational drug of abuse consumption was associated with active tobacco smoking, a higher number of smoked cigarettes and the mother being Spanish.
Illicit drug use is substantially under-reported among pregnant women living in Ibiza, particularly among Spanish nationals. Voluntary, routine objective biological toxicology screening should be considered as part of routine examinations in antenatal clinics on this Mediterranean island.
- SourceAvailable from: Manuel López-Rivadulla[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:: Drug of abuse consumption throughout pregnancy is a serious public health problem and an important economic cost to the health system. The aim of this work was to compare maternal interview and hair analysis to determine drug consumption throughout pregnancy and to study relations among maternal interview, hair results, and neonatal outcomes. METHODS:: Two hundred nine mothers agreed to participate. After delivery, they were interviewed and a hair sample collected. Hair samples were segmented in trimesters and analyzed for 35 drugs [opioids, cocaine, amphetamines, Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), ketamine, methadone, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and hypnotics; limits of quantification 5-100 pg/mg] and for ethyl glucuronide (limit of quantification 10 pg/mg) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis was performed with χ test and t test. RESULTS:: In the interview, 4.3% mothers declared using illicit drugs during pregnancy (cocaine 1.4%, THC 2.9%, and opiates 1%), 3.3% medicines (methadone 1.9%, benzodiazepines 1.9%, and antidepressants 0.5%), 21.5% tobacco, and 13.7% alcohol. Hair analysis showed 15.4% prevalence in illicit drugs (cocaine 12.4%, THC 3.8%, opiates 1%, and ketamine 1%), 22.5% in medicines (methadone 3.3%, benzodiazepines 11%, antidepressants 9.1%, zopiclone 1%, and fentanyl 1.4%), and 3.9% in alcohol. Neonatal abstinence syndrome was developed in 8.1% newborns, all of them from mothers with high methadone-positive hair results (>926.2 pg/mg). Statistically significant lower newborn weight and length were found in neonates from declared smokers compared with nonsmokers (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:: Maternal hair analysis showed to be more sensitive than maternal interview to detect drug use during pregnancy, except for alcohol. In this preliminary study, no statistically significant differences were found between exposed and nonexposed newborns to drugs, except for tobacco consumption.Therapeutic drug monitoring 05/2013; · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Drug use during pregnancy is difficult to ascertain, and maternal reports are likely to be inaccurate. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use among pregnant women by using maternal hair analysis. A toxicological analysis of hair was used to detect chronic recreational drug use during pregnancy. In 2007, 347 mother-infant dyads were included from the Hospital La Candelaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain). Data on socioeconomic characteristics and on substance misuse during pregnancy were collected using a structured questionnaire. Drugs of abuse: opiates, cocaine, cannabinoids and amphetamines were detected in maternal hair by immunoassay followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirmation and quantitation. Hair analysis revealed 2.6% positivity for cocaine and its metabolites. Use of cocaine during pregnancy was associated with unusual behaviour with potentially harmful effects on the baby. The results of the study demonstrate significant cocaine use by pregnant women in Canary Islands. The data should be used for the purpose of preventive health and policy strategies aimed to detect and possibly to avoid in the future prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse.BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 01/2012; 12:2. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Drug determination in biological matrices from the mother and the newborn is an objective measure of maternal and fetal drug exposure. The aim of this study was to compare maternal hair, meconium, umbilical cord, and placenta for detecting in utero drug exposure to cocaine, opiates, methadone, and amphetamines. Maternal hair, meconium, umbilical cord, and placenta were collected from 175 mother-newborn dyads. Maternal hair (segmented in trimesters) and meconium specimens were analyzed for cocaine, opiates, methadone, and amphetamines. If either maternal hair or meconium tested positive, umbilical cord and placenta were analyzed. Analyses were performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. In hair, 24 participants tested positive; 21 for cocaine [cocaine 20-50,605, benzoylecgonine (BE) 17-46,668 pg/mg], 7 for methadone (76-26,845 pg/mg), 2 for opiates (morphine 298-2398 pg/mg, codeine 65-914 pg/mg, 6-acetylmorphine 1635-15,657 pg/mg), and 1 for amphetamines (amphetamine 1990 pg/mg, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine 30 pg/mg, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine 294 pg/mg). In meconium, 6 were positive; 5 for methadone [methadone 88-3752, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) 642-25,179 ng/g], 3 for cocaine (cocaine 7, BE 79, hydroxybenzoylecgonine 5-135, ecgonine-methyl ester 2-56 ng/g), and 2 for opiates (morphine 152-1025, morphine-3-glucuronide 22-23, codeine 4-34 ng/g). Placenta and umbilical cord were positive in 5 and 6 cases, respectively; 5 for methadone in placenta (methadone 7-543, EDDP 10-51 ng/g) and cord (methadone 3-183, EDDP 2-109 ng/g); 1 for cocaine in placenta (cocaine 7, BE 2 ng/g) and cord (BE 6 ng/g); and 1 for opiates in placenta (morphine 6, morphine-3-glucuronide 48 ng/g), and 2 in cord (morphine 2, morphine-3-glucuronide 15-38, morphine-6-glucuronide 5 ng/g). Meconium, placenta, and umbilical cord only tested positive if hair concentrations were greater than Society of Hair Testing cutoffs. Maternal hair is the most sensitive specimen to detect drug consumption during pregnancy. Placenta and umbilical cord could be alternatives to meconium for detecting high in utero drug exposure.Therapeutic drug monitoring 07/2013; · 2.43 Impact Factor