Immature Citrus sunki peel extract exhibits antiobesity effects by β-oxidation and lipolysis in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.
ABSTRACT The peel of Citrus sunki HORT. ex TANAKA has been widely used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of many diseases, including indigestion and bronchial asthma. In this study, we investigated the antiobesity activity of immature C. sunki peel extract (designated CSE) using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6 mice and mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the animal study, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride in the CSE-administered group decreased significantly compared to the HFD group. Also, CSE supplementation reduced serum levels of glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Moreover, it significantly decreased the accumulation of fatty droplets in liver tissue, suggesting a protective effect against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Dietary supplementation with CSE reversed the HFD-induced decrease in the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which are related to fatty acid β-oxidation, in the epididymal adipose tissue. Also, CSE increased AMPK and ACC phosphorylation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CSE also enhanced lipolysis by phosphorylation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that CSE had an antiobesity effect via elevated β-oxidation and lipolysis in adipose tissue.
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ABSTRACT: Flavonoids are important natural compounds with diverse biologic activities. Citrus flavonoids constitute an important series of flavonoids. Naringin and its aglycone naringenin belong to this series of flavonoids and were found to display strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Several lines of investigation suggest that naringin supplementation is beneficial for the treatment of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. A number of molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial activities have been elucidated. However, their effect on obesity and metabolic disorder remains to be fully established. Moreover, the therapeutic uses of these flavonoids are significantly limited by the lack of adequate clinical evidence. This review aims to explore the biologic activities of these compounds, particularly on lipid metabolism in obesity, oxidative stress, and inflammation in context of metabolic syndrome.Advances in Nutrition 07/2014; 5(4):404-417. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Flavonoids are one of the major components found in the peels of citrus fruits. Present evidence has suggested that polymethoxyflavonoids, including nobiletin and tangeretin isolated from Citrus sunki, have many biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-obesity capabilities. Here, we investigated the effect of Citrus sunki peel extract and its possible mechanisms on oxidative stress-induced MMP-1 expression, a major marker of skin photoaging. induced MMP-1 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Extract of Citrus sunki peel (1-25 ) dose-dependently decreased MMP-1 mRNA levels. When was combined with Citrus sunki peel extract, the phosphorylation of ERK was further decreased compared to a single treatment with alone. Moreover, U0216, an MEK inhibitor, markedly prevented the production of MMP-1. These data suggest that Citrus sunki peel extract has demonstrated protective activity against oxidative damage on MMP-1 expression, and ERK MAP kinase may be involved.Journal of Life Science. 12/2013; 23(12).
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ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue performs many functions in the body, being considered an endocrine organ due to substances secreted, called adipokines. The excess of adipose tissue is called obesity, and it is associated with a state of chronic subclinical inflammation. Various strategies and products have been evaluated in an attempt to prevent and treat obesity, standing out the importance of polyphenols from citrus fruits. This paper aims to review studies developed to evaluate the role of these compounds in obesity and some general trends can be highlighted. The in vitro studies indicate that citrus polyphenols could assist in the management of obesity, since they cause a reduction in adipocyte differentiation, lipid content in the cell and adipocyte apoptosis. The biological assays are not entirely consistent; however, most of them indicated a reduction in adipose tissue; increased genes expression indicating a stimulus to β-oxidation; improved lipid profile and glycemia; as well as some evidence of improvement in inflammatory status. Several clinical trials have demonstrated the positive effect of citrus flavonoids in the reduction of proinflammatory cytokines in humans, being beneficial to alleviate the complications present in obesity. However, there are few clinical trials developed to examine its role in reducing adiposity.Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie 12/2014; 59(2):1205–1212. · 2.47 Impact Factor