Immature Citrus sunki peel extract exhibits antiobesity effects by β-oxidation and lipolysis in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.
ABSTRACT The peel of Citrus sunki HORT. ex TANAKA has been widely used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of many diseases, including indigestion and bronchial asthma. In this study, we investigated the antiobesity activity of immature C. sunki peel extract (designated CSE) using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6 mice and mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the animal study, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride in the CSE-administered group decreased significantly compared to the HFD group. Also, CSE supplementation reduced serum levels of glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Moreover, it significantly decreased the accumulation of fatty droplets in liver tissue, suggesting a protective effect against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Dietary supplementation with CSE reversed the HFD-induced decrease in the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which are related to fatty acid β-oxidation, in the epididymal adipose tissue. Also, CSE increased AMPK and ACC phosphorylation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CSE also enhanced lipolysis by phosphorylation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that CSE had an antiobesity effect via elevated β-oxidation and lipolysis in adipose tissue.
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the correlation between the flavonoid content and NO production inhibitory activity of fruit peel extracts using 20 citrus plants. The contents of seven flavonoids (naringin, naringenin, hesperidin, hesperetin, rutin, nobiletin, and tangeretin) were determined by HPLC analysis. Each citrus peel extract varied in flavonoid content, but the contents of nobiletin and tangeretin, which were contained in all 20 fruit peels, showed a positive and significant correlation with each other (r=0.879, p<0.0005 for immature fruit peels; r=0.858, p<0.0005 for mature fruit peels). All citrus peel extracts dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells. This inhibitory effect was significantly and positively correlated with the content of nobiletin and tangeretin. Nobiletin showed a more potent NO production inhibitory activity (IC50=26.5 microM) compared to tangeretin (IC50=136.6 microM). This result supports the premise that nobiletin-rich citrus may provide protection against disease resulting from excessive NO production.Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 04/2007; 30(4):772-8. · 1.85 Impact Factor
- The Lancet 06/1999; 353(9165):1634-6. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The anti-atherogenic effects of the citrus flavonoids, naringin and naringenin, were evaluated in high cholesterol-fed rabbits. At 3 months of age, 30 male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were divided into three groups (n = 10 per group). The rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol diet alone (control group) or a diet supplemented with either 0.1% naringin or 0.05% naringenin for 8 weeks. The plasma lipoprotein levels, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein showed no significant differences in the control and experimental groups. Hepatic acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity was slightly low in naringin (5.0%)- and naringenin (15.0%)-fed rabbits, compared to control group. The aortic fatty streak areas were significantly lower in both the naringin (19.2 +/- 5.6%)- and naringenin (18.1 +/- 6.5%)-supplemented groups than in the control group (60.4 +/- 14.0%). The expression levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), by semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis of the thoracic aorta, were significantly lower in the flavonoids supplemented groups than in the control group. These results suggest that the anti-atherogenic effect of the citrus flavonoids, naringin and naringenin, is involved with a decreased hepatic ACAT activity and with the downregulation of VCAM-1 and MCP-1 gene expression.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2001; 284(3):681-8. · 2.41 Impact Factor