Neuroprotective capabilities of Tanshinone IIA against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via anti-apoptotic pathway in rats.
ABSTRACT Danshen, derived from the dried root or rhizome of Salviae miltiorrhizae BGE., has Tanshinone IIA (TSA) as one of its active ingredients. Recent reports have shown that TSA can inhibit the apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal or ethanol in cultured PC12 cells. However, whether TSA has any neuroprotective effect remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of TSA on cerebral apoptosis induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in which cerebral ischemia had been induced 2 h earlier. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, the rats were assessed for infarct volume etc. Intraperitoneal administration of 25 and 40 mg/kg TSA 10 min after MCAO significantly diminished infarct volume and brain water content and improved neurological deficits in a dose-dependent manner. The 25 mg/kg dosage was more effective. Treatment with 25 mg/kg TSA significantly improved symptoms and reduce infarct volume at different points in time, of which 10 min after MCAO was the most significant. Nissl-staining and HE-staining of the 25 mg/kg TSA group were more appreciable in terms of improvement relative to the vehicle group in the infarct core. TSA of dosage 25 mg/kg significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein and increased the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2) protein in the ischemic cortex. Fewer terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were found in the penumbra of the treated group, but they were significantly more common in the vehicle group. We here conclude that the neuroprotective effects of TSA against focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury are likely to be related to the attenuation of apoptosis.
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ABSTRACT: Ischaemic stroke is a leading cause of death and long-lasting disability. Gastrodia elata blume (GEB) is a Chinese herb that is widely used to treat convulsive disorders, such as epilepsy, and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (HBA) is the active ingredient in GEB. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of GEB and HBA on the brain damage and transcriptional levels of Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and 1-Cys peroxiredoxin (1-Cys Prx) genes known to play a role in antioxidant systems after transient focal ischemia in the rat brain. Focal ischemia was induced in rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). All animals underwent ischemia for 1 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Coronal brain slices were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride or total RNA was extracted for the analysis of gene expression. Histopathologic analysis revealed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in infarct size in the ipsilateral brain with GEB extracts or HBA. Moreover, the levels of PDI and 1-Cys Prx transcription were significantly increased in the GEB extract- or HBA-treated group compared with the untreated group (p<0.05). This study therefore indicated that GEB and HBA provide neuroprotection by preventing brain damage through the increased expression of genes encoding antioxidant proteins after transient focal cerebral ischemia and may be effective as neuroprotective agents at the cellular and molecular levels in the brain.Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 06/2005; 28(6):1016-20. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts, multinuclear cells specialized for bone resorption, differentiate from the monocyte/macrophage lineage of hematopoietic cells. Intervention in osteoclast differentiation is considered an effective therapeutic approach to the treatment of bone diseases involving osteoclasts. In this study, we found that tanshinone IIA, originating from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, inhibited the differentiation of osteoclasts. Addition of tanshinone IIA to the osteoclast precursor culture caused a significant decrease in the level of calcitonin receptor, c-Src, and integrin beta3 mRNA, which are normally upregulated during the osteoclast differentiation dependent on RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand). RANKL activated the ERK, Akt, and NF-kappaB signal transduction pathways in osteoclast precursor cells, and tanshinone IIA suppressed this activation. Tanshinone IIA also inhibited the bone resorptive activity of differentiated osteoclasts, which was accompanied with the disruption of the actin ring. Thus, tanshinone IIA has the potential to ameliorate bone-resorption diseases in vivo by reducing both the number and activity of osteoclasts.Biochemical Pharmacology 06/2004; 67(9):1647-56. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotection time window for nerve growth factor (NGF) after ischemia/reperfusion brain injury in rabbits as related to this anti-apoptosis mechanism. Male New Zealand rabbits were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), followed by 70 h of reperfusion. NGF was administered after injury to evaluate the time window. Neurological deficits, infarct volume, neural cell apoptosis and expressions of caspase-3 and Bcl-2 were measured. Compared to saline-treated control, NGF treatment at 2, 3 and 5 h after MCAO significantly reduced infarct volume, neural cell apoptosis and expression of caspase-3 (P < 0.01), up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and improved functional recovery (P < 0.01). However, treatment at latter time points did not produce significant neuroprotection. Neuroprotection treatment with NGF provides an extended time window of up to 5 h after ischemia/reperfusion brain injury, in part by attenuating the apoptosis.Neurological Sciences 03/2011; 32(3):433-41. · 1.41 Impact Factor